Notation System in Hindustani Classical Music


Notation System

          The notation system in Hindi is called Swarlip Paddhati which is recognize as the backbone of the transcribed music. In western music there are various pattern of notation system famous but staff notation in highly recognized in all over the world. Standard notation system is only the way to write music in a systematic way.

          In India there are various style of transcribing musical pattern were famous in different ages. Various scholars and intellectuals had done tremendous effort to form the oral tradition of Indian music. The renowned musicologist of 20th century Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande is one among the all who systematic the terms of Hindustani Classical Music and restructured in simple way that a normal person can understand the terms of notation. Later this notation system get recognized in Indian and widely Popular in transcribing the Classical Music. Another Musicologist and Singer of 20th Century Pandit Vishnu Digambar Palushkar has also created and developed the Swarlip but it become less popular and confined under his tradition only. 

Bhatkhande Swarlipi Paddhati :-

          Renowned Musicologist Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande introduce the simple format of writing music in early 20th century. The teaching and pattern later on famous with the name Bhatkhande notation system in Indian Music. This pattern of writing musical tones in widely popular in South Asian subcontinent. The main characteristic of Bhatkhande swarlipi in simple to understand. The terms symbol and signature used in identify the Swar, Taal, Matra are very simple and easily understood by the beginners too. Here are the list of symbol and sign used in Bhatkhande Notation system.


For Swar :-

1.       & (Das under any swara indicate the komal swar).

2.       A (standing line above the madhyam indicate tivra swar).

3.       No sign in any swar means ntural notes or suddha swara.

4.       . (dot under the each swara indicate the lower octave notes or mandre seaptak swara).

5.       . (Dot above the any swara menas higher octave notes or the tar saptak swara).

6.            (Semi Circle covering any swara from below mewans counting of all swar in one matra).

7.            (Semi circle above covering any swara means the mead or the rown note from where particular notes start to come to the main note).

8.       (lk) (Bracket swar mens the murki spell around one swar and above and below i.e., (lk) in hidden way.

9.       & (Dash in between the two swar means the enlargement of previous swar or sometimes counted as rest space.)

10.     · (· denotes the pause between the bandish poetry and usually being used as the long spell or previous alphabet to ornament the beuty of singing as well as playing instrument)

For Taal :-

·        X (cross sign below the bols of any tala means the sum or the first matra of tala. This type of signatue are commonly used in Bandish and tala).

·        0 (zero indicates the Khali of the tala. It is used in tala notation as well. In Bandish these signs are the time signature to identify the rotation of the Bandish).

·        1, 2, 3 (usually write under the first note of any vibhag to denotes the tali and counting of rhythm in music).

·        A&A&A&A (vertical lines used in separation the counting of rhythm in Bhatkhande notation system is called vibhag. This simplify the understand of raga and tala rhythm cycle with tali khali).






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