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Raga Literature


          Bandish is the well-composed lyrical poetry and structure of melody framed with a grammatical sequence of Raga. It is the traditional name of the composition in Hindustani Classical music,  not similar to ordinary songs but has charming both in melody and rhythmic aspect. Usually a Bandish Consist of two stanzas,  Sthai, and Antara. In past centuries  Bandish was of 4 stanzas having Sthai, Antara, Sanchari, and Abhogi were in practice. It is still noticed in Dhrupad and Dhamar tradition having the same style of Bandish Structure of four verses. In Hindustani Classical Music, Bandish plays a great role to express the musical melody through literature. Most of the Bandish composed in Hindustani music is in the typical language of Avadh and Braj, a subline of the Hindi language. Bandishes are well composed with the lyrical beauty of literature with the variant flavor of Raga. The aesthetic of Raga, the Rasa theory, and its expression are well synchronized by the Vagyakar in forming the melody of the Bandish.


          Chhand literary means the series of words used to compose the poem or song with uniformity in each grammatical sequence. It means a grammatical sequence to compose poetry with proper verses and stanzas. In music too Chhand is of equal importance in Bandish, either of a song or of any other composition to articulate melody with a definite and regular pattern of accented and unaccented beats. Musical Chhand is the rhythm patterns based in a certain time cycle called Tala and its Matras and Layas within the cycle of certain pleasing thimble that composed music and the melody.


Chayalagna Raga:-

          The Term Chaya and Lagna are two different works combined to form a sing word Chayalagna.  here Chaya means the shadow or the influence of other ragas in a particular way and Lagna means to attach with or come with so the Chayalagna Raga means the secondary raga composed with the mixture of two Raga. Evidently, it is a mixture of two Raga to form a new Raga borrowing some character of the mother Raga or  Suddha Raga. In simple words, Chayalagna Raga is characterized as the Raga having the mixture of two Ragas to form a new melody Raga.  Puriya-Kalyan, in a Raga of Chayalagna Character having the both touch of Puriya and Kalyan. Hameer, Kedar, Shyam Kalyan, Goud Sarang, and many other Raga are popular in Hindustani Music of Chayalagna Characteristics.


Sankirna Raga:-

          Sankara means the mixture of various aromas and flavors that exactly creates a new melody.  Sankirna Raga means the Raga having the shadow of more than two Ragas either of Suddha or Chayalagna Characteristics. In Hindustani music, some Ragas are composed with a mixture of different melodic structures borrowed from a few Janya Raga. Sankirna Raga exactly means the raga having the shadow and mixture of three or more Raga.   Bilashkhani Todi is the combination of Todi, Komal Asawari, and Bhairavi. So, it is called Sankirna Raga has the character of three or more different raga to form a distinct melody. Raga Sindh-Bhairavi, Ahir Bhairav, Jayjaywanti, Pilu  Bhatiyar are a few examples of Sankirna Raga.


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Raga- A Cluster of Imagination



        The systematic formation of melodic structure which pleased the mind and soul is the basic concept of Raga. Indian Classical Music basically depends on the melodic structure of the notes with systematic ascent and descent having a minimum of five notes. It is described as the grammar of Indian music tied with certain rules and regulations of Swar and Tala. The Raga is basically a soothing melody created to express the aesthetics with the combination of microtones scaled under a certain format with confined notes combination with proper ascent and descent. The basic rule described in Shastra about the raga are those to establish the frame i.e. Sa is mandatory to create Raga, either Pa or Ma must be included in its formation, at least 5 notes from the Scale should be included, Grah-Ansh, Alpato-Bahuto, Shadav-Audav, Nyas- Apnays and Vadi-Samvadi should be in a systematic format.

    In Indian Classical music, Raga is not only the melody but also the body or the object stand with Swar, Tala, and Laya (notes rhythm and tempo), and its fundamental essence is controlled with the principle of Shruti Gaya, a skeleton to structure the frame with tiny notes in between the tones and semitones. In the ancient text, the first raga word was used by Sage Matang Muni in his Epic texture called Brihaddeshi. Initially, it is the replication of the natural color of Shruti and Swara to reform the pigmentation constructive melody. The Raga in Hindustani music or in Carnatic music are the main elements and was designed with the systematic rules of implementing notes in a proper way. The scale of the raga is pre-determined and the frame is also considered as an absolute and con-creed element but the improvisation is built with the imagination of the individual artist. The Dhrupad tradition is more confined with the improvisation of notes in rhythm and the rhythmic inversion called Layakari whereas the Khayal tradition is typically based on a flexible rhythmic cycle mostly based on the imagination and improvisation of Bandish in bonding with notes. The raga in terms of  Thumri describes as a melody of imagination and beauty of literature to explore the aesthetics of love and affections, feeling of an engagement, or the misery of breakaway of relations. 

    Understanding the Raga in Indian classical music is more saturated form either by learning or by listening with proper patience and dissolving yourself to the eternal essence of Nad-E- Brahma( Sound is absolute truth). One can be nurtured in Raga music by means of devotion and proper practice under the guidance of a respected Guru. A Raga can be realized, understand, and explore with the melodic fragrance of Shruti in-weave in Swar, Laya, and Tala. The Raga is the beginning, the ultimate truth, and the conclusion always revolve and rotate around with different thought and beauty of expression to understand the divinity of Indian Music. 

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An Introduction to Dhrupad, Dhamar and Khyal Tradition

Major Styles 

    The major style of Hindustani Shastriya Sangeet is associated with Dhrupad, Dhamar, Sadra, Khyal, Thumri, Tappa, Trivat, Chaturanga, Tarana, etc. Some folk musical traditions smarten up to semi-classical based on some typical Ragas like Khamaj, Bhairavi, Kafi, Desh, Pahadi, Mand, Pilu, Tilang, Sarang, etc. These Ragas are sometimes called upgraded versions of folk melodies to systematic music form. The refurbished semi-classical compositions like Kajri, Chaiti, Bhajan, Jhula, Kirtan and Geet Ghazals, etc are also the upgraded form to the classical/ semi-classical form from the living tradition of Folk repertoire now popularly based on melodies of Ragas



          Dhrupad is one of the distinctive forms of Hindustani Classical Music supposed to emerge in the medieval period. Dhrupad means - Dhru - A consistent Star Dhruva star in the Northern Corner of the sky and pad means the text or the literature sung in this format. So the entire meaning of Dhrupad is a composition or text like Dhruva star with the devotional value composed in a unique way of singing with raga melody. It is supposed to emerge from the Astapadi Gaan of Prabandha (Sharma, 2010). Dhrupad is one of the oldest styles in Hindustani Classical Music form. Initially, it was dominated by the male singer accompanying with Pakhawaj and composition were in Sanskrit and regional languages like Avadhi and Braj Bhasha (widdess, 2004).

          The tradition of Dhrupad style emerges in West Uttar Pradesh, Gwalior, and Vrindavan.  Gwalior Court was one of the fertile places for the Dhrupad where it emerges from the Astapadi Recital of Prabandha. Raja Mansingh Tomar was the promoter where swami Haridas was supposed to be the generator of the tradition of dhrupad. It is distinctly a different style of Classical singing that gradually started with Alap, Jood, and Jhala, slow medium, and fast speed of the rhythmic cycle. Alap is always in slow speed, a melodic portion intricates the Raganga of a particular raga with Kaan, Gamak, and Meed. The rhythmic section called Jod and Jhala is extraordinary to unfold of notes and elaboration of gamak and meed. Devotional theme and content are the particular compositions dedicated to the deities that began with the Nom-Tom Alap, Om Anantam Hari Narayan - Tribute to Lord Vishnu.

          Dhrupad is a style of Hindustani classical music, which accepts four Vani, a tradition of adopting the notes in its own style. Vani means the singing style of Dhrupad or the way of making melody during the recital. All four Vani has their own destiny and variation from one another. Dagar Vani, Nahar Vani, Gauhar Vani, and Khandahan Vani are the traditional acceptance style of dhrupad called the Vani or technique of dhrupad practice and performance.

          The compositions of Dhrupad are generally sung in the time cycle of 12 beats called Chautal. The other taals commonly accompany Dhrupad recitals are Sul Taal of 10 beats cycle and Tevra Taal of 7 beats cycle. The composition in dhrupad is of four divisions or four aang called Sthai, Antara Sanchari, and Aabhog (widdess, 2004). Dhrupad is often called as a composition of four dimensions (Charo pat-IV), a complete singing style of all dimensions. The compositions are sung in various laytakari (varied tempo) of which determination defines the ability of the singer during the dhrupad recital. Mostly Dhrupad singer performs in Dugun, Tigun, Chaugun, Aaad, and layakari, perhaps some rare layakaries are Kuaad, Viaad with a variety of mathematical calculation to meet the sama- the first beat of the composition. It is an extraordinary singing style which haulage from the generations with devotion determination and sacrifice to became sacred musical essence of Dhrupad which is not to entertain the public but to pray the Lord Narayana with the Garlands of notes and the feeling through the embodiment of melody and literature.



          Dhamar is a singing style that comes under the Dhrupad Aang Gayaki Tradition of Hindustani Classical Music. The composition, layakari are as similar as in dhrupad but the time cycle of Taal and aesthetical expression of literature is special expressing the beauty of Holi, the moods of seven colors. Usually, Dhamar is a composition having the text relating Holi and Rasa-Leela of Gopi and Krishna of Vrindavan usually sung in the 14 beat cycle of Dhamar Taal (Sharma, 2010). The Raga expansion (Badhat) and various layakri are composed as similar as in Dhrupad tradition with Tha, Dugun Tigun, Chaugun, Aad, and other various rhythmic variations with the ability of the artist. It is supposed to be the lighter form than Dhrupad so deep nom tom aalap in very slow tempo are usually not in practice with Dhamar tradition.

It is supposed that the tradition was begun in Vrindavan and its periphery in the medieval era when the Bhakti Andolan was highly flourished. The concept of Dhamar singing is highly based on the colors and the beauty of love and attraction. The fragrance of the literature shows the attraction and expression of love, adore, devotion, worship, and admire happiness towards beloved ones in tribute to the love and engagement of Lord Krishna, Radha, and Gopiya of Braj and occasionally sung in Vasant Ritu (Spring Season).



          Khyal in the modern innovation merely popularized in the 16th Century. Khyal literally means the 'through' or the imagination which a singer improvises and expresses the eternal feeling and emotion in language or in tune. The concept of Khyal singing was probably established, flourished, and popularized by Sadarang and Adarang, Darbari Gayak (Court musician and singer) of Mohammad Shah Rangeele of Agra Darbar (Prajnananda, 2002) (Mahajan, 1990). After the generation, many disciples groomed in the palace spread the style of Khyal from one place to another place and flourished to the enormous height that today.  It is established as a prominent singing style of Hindustani Classical music.  Khyal usually describes the emotions, expression of love and separation, misery or solidity of life, anger or sadness or the courage or bravery or the gallantry (adhbhut) rasa. The literature contains a greater variety of embellishments and ornamentations compared to other past singing styles. It is quite liberal than Dhrupad, Dhamar to express the eternal feeling is language. Extempore creativity, Alap, the craving Pukar of musical sounds that glorify to become popular genre of Hindustani music 

          Khyal is complete singing handy imagination set with in the particular raga. The emotions the improvisation and the expression are inspired. Within the peculiar raga to depict the Khyal. The importance of literature is highly accepted in Khyal. It has usually Sthai and one Antara, composed of one Raga following the Vilambit laya in Teentaal, Jhumra, Tilwada, Ada Chautaal, Ektall, and Jhaptal. Sometime Vilambit laya is also composed in Rupak Taal. Vilambit Khyal is also called Bada Khyal. It has a wide range of innovation and creativity in vilambit laya. The medium tempo of khyal singing is called chota khyal (small khyal). The tempo of chota khyal is usually 120 beats per minute. Expression and innovation of lyrical beauty in the major component of Khyal singing. Both patterns of khyal singing are based on creativeness, expressions, and innovation. The Alap, Taan, Bol Taan, Tehai are the part that decorates the entire singing (Sharma, 2010). Drut khyal followed by high-speed taan reflects the extensive preparation of singers. 


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पौराणिक ग्रंथों में शास्त्रीय संगीत: एक संक्षिप्त विश्लेषण

पौराणिक ग्रंथों में शास्त्रीय संगीत: एक संक्षिप्त विश्लेषण

      iqjk.k Hkkjr dk lPpk bfrgkl gSA iqjk.kksa ls gh Hkkjrh; thou dk vkfn Hkkjr dh lH;rk] laLd`fr rFkk Hkkjr ds fo|k oSHko ds mRdkZ dk okLrfod Kku izkIr gksrk gSA oktlsfu; czkã.kksifu’kn~ ds vuqlkj osn rFkk iqjk.k bZ'oj ds fu%okl gSA laxhr ds fy, iqjk.kksa esa izk;% xkU/koZ “kCn dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA iqjk.kksa ls gesa Kkr gksrk gS fd Hkkjrh; laxhr dk izkphu Lo:i D;k Fkk\ vkSj bl fo|k dk vkfoHkkZo fdl y{; dks ysdj gqvk gS\ bldk lkekftd] lkaLd`frd ,oa /kkfeZd m)s'; D;k jgk gS\ laxhr dyk dks iqjk.kksa dh fof'kV nsu ;g gS fd bls fuEu /kjkry ls mBkdj mPp f'k[kj ij izfrfBr djds lke&xku ds leku iq.; dk;Z cuk fn;kA f'kYi ds :i esa ftldh fuank dh xbZ vkSj fof'kV oxksZa ds fy, ftls R;kT; ekuk x;k] mls gh iwtk rFkk ti tSls egkiq.; dk;ksZa ls Hkh vf/kd Js;dj LFkku iqjk.kkas esa izkIr gqvk gSA lHkh vorjksa rFkk egku iq#’kksa dk bl laxhr dyk ls fdlh u fdlh :i esa lEcU/k vo; jgk gSA iqjk.kksa esa laxhr kkL= esa fofo/k fu;eksa dk o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA laxhr ls lEcfU/kr izeq[k iqjk.k bl izdkj gS%& ok;q iqjk.k] ekdZ.Ms; iqjk.k vkSj fo’.kq /keksZŸkj iqjk.k vkfnA

 iqjk.k dkYk esa laxhr ds lS)kfUrd i{k ij Òh dkQh lkexzh ÁkIr g¨rh gSA ,d lwr Loje.MYk ds fo"k; esa crkrs gq, fuEu rÙo¨a dk mYY¨[k djrk gS %& lkr Loj] rhu xzke] bDdhl ewPNZuk v©j mépkl rku¨a dh lkeqnkf;d laKk Loje.MYk gSA vFkkZr~ bl dkYk rd lkr Loj¨a ds lkFk&lkFk xzke v©j ewPNkZuk vkfn dk O;ogkj lk/kkj.k tu¨a esa Òh ÁpfYkr g¨ x;k FkkA ukjnh; f'k{kk esa Òh cgqr de vUrj ds lkFk Loje.MYk ds fo"k; esa blh Ádkj dk o.kZu feYkrk gSA ok;q iqjk.k laxhr ls lEcfU/kr dkQh tkudkjh ÁLrqr djrk gSA bl iqjk.k esa e/;e&xzke dh chl] "kM~~t&xzke dh p©ng v©j xkU/kkj&xzke dh iUæg vFkkZr~ dqYk mépkl rkusa crYkkbZ xbZ gSaA e/;e&xzke dh chl ;K rku¨a ds fo"k; esa o.kZu ÒjrÒk";e~ uked xzUFk esa Òh feYkrk gSA ;g o.kZu YkxÒx ok;q iqjk.k ds leku gh Árhr g¨rk gSA blds lkFk gh lkr Loj] lkr xzkejkx] lkr xhrd] rhu xzke] pkj Ádkj ds in v©j rkYk] rhu Ádkj dh Yk; rFkk pkj Ádkj ds vkrks| vFkok ok|¨a dk o.kZu Òh ;g iqjk.k djrk gSA lkr Loj "kM~~t] _"kÒ] xkU/kkj] e/;e] iape] /©or rFkk fu"kkn loZfofnr gSaA fo".kq/ke¨ZÙkj iqjk.k esa laxhr ds 'kkóh; fl)kUr¨a&xhr ds rhu Òsn] oknh] laoknh] vuqoknh] ewPNZukv¨a ds vkfn o var] Loj¨a ds jlkuqlkj i;¨x rFkk tkfr ds nl Yk{k.k¨a vkfn ds lkFk&lkFk YkxÒx mu lc fo"k;¨ ls lEcfU/kr o.kZu Òh ÁkIr g¨ tkrk gS] t¨ vU; iqjk.k esa feYkrk gSA

laxhr edjUn ds u`R;k/;k; ds vuqlkj prqJ] «;J] feJ rFkk [k.M ;s pkj Ádkj ds rkYk g¨rs gSaA bUgÈ pkj rkYk¨a dk ekdZ.Ms; iqjk.k esa ladsr fd;k x;k gSA rkYk¨a ds ;s Ádkj o.kZ vFkok v{kj ds vk/kkj ij ekus x, gSaA pkj o.k¨a dk prqJ rkYk g¨rk gS] rhu o.k¨± dk «;J] bu n¨u¨ d¨ feYkkdj lkr o.k¨± dk ik¡p o.k¨± dk [k.M rkYk g¨rk gSA fo".kq/ke¨±Ùkj iqjk.k esa pPpriqV] pkpiqV] iapikf.k v©j "kV~~firkiq«k rkYk¨a ds uke vk, gSaA rkYk¨a ds ekxZ ds LFkku esa bl iqjk.k esa o`fÙk 'kCn dk Á;¨x gqvk gS gekjs 'kkL=ksa esa rhu Ádkj dh o`fÙk;¨a dk Á;¨x feYkrk gSA bu o`fÙk;¨a ds uke&fp«kk] okfrZdh v©j nf{k.kk gSaA ÁkphudkYk esa o`fÙk 'kCn dk Á;¨x Yk; 'kCn ds vFkZ esa vusd LFkku¨a ij feYkrk gSA vr% ;gk¡ Òh bldk Á;¨x blh vFkZ esa gqvk tku iM+rk gSA ekdZ.Ms; iqjk.k esa æqr] e/; rFkk foYkfEcr rhu Ádkj dh Yk; ls lEcfU/kr o.kZu feYkrk gSA bl iqjk.k ds vuqlkj i‚ap Yk?kq v{kj¨a ds mPpkj.k dkYk d¨ ,d ek«kk ekuk x;k gSA blds lkFk gh ;g iqjk.k Yk; ,oa jl ds lEcU/k ij Ádk'k MkYkrs gq, gkL; v©j J`axkj esa e/;Yk;] ohÒRl v©j Ò;kud esa foYkfEcr] ohj] j©æ v©j vn~~Òqr esa æqr rFkk 'kkUr jl ds fYk, d¨bZ fof'k"V Yk; u gkus dk o.kZu djrk gSA

ekdZ.Ms; iqjk.k ds vuqlkj pkj Ádkj ds Áfl) vkr¨| vFkkZr~ ok| gSa & rr~] vou) vFkok vku)] /ku v©j lqf"kjA fo".kq/ke¨±Ùkj ds r`rh; [k.M esa laLÑr v©j ÁkÑr O;kdj.k] NUn] dkO;] ÁfrÒk fuekZ.k] fp«kdkjh] u`R;] xku v©j ok| dk o.kZu gSA vkr¨| dk fo".kq/ke¨±Ùkj iqjk.k ds méhlosa v/;k; esa o.kZu feYkrk gS buds vuqlkj ok| pkj Ádkj ds rr] ?ku] lqf"kj v©j vou) gSaA ekdZ.Ms; iqjk.k ds vuqlkj Òh pkj Ádkj ds ok| vFkok vkr¨| ekus x, gSaA oh.kk bR;kfn rr~ ok|] ckalqjh bR;kfn fNæokY¨ lqf"kj ok|] eathjk bR;kfn ?ku ok| v©j eqjt rFkk e`nax bR;kfn vou) ok| gSaA rr~ ok|¨a esa&oh.kk] oYYkdh rFkk foiaph( vou) ok|¨a esa&eqjt] iq"dj] e`nax] iVg] i.ko] >YYkjh] <Ddk] nqanqfÒ] Me: rFkk nnqZj vkfnA lqf"kj ok|¨a esa&'ka[k os.kq] x¨eq[k] vkMEcj rFkk Òsjh( ?ku ok|¨a esa&>k¡>] ?kaVh rFkk ?kaVk vkfn ok|¨a dk mYY¨[k eq[; :i ls feYkrk gSA laxhr dh vf/k"Vk«kh nsoh ekrk ljLorh r¨ gSa gh] buds vfrfjä czãk] f'ko rFkk fo".kq vkfn nsorkv¨a dk uke Òh ok|¨a ls tqM+k gqvk gSA Ñ".k dh oa'kh Áfl) gh gS] blh Ádkj uVjkt ds u`R;drkZ o u`R; ,oa laxhr fÁ; :i dk vusd¨a ckj mYY¨[k fd;k x;k v©j czãk r¨ lke&xku drkZ gSa ghA

jkek;.k dky esa 'kkL=h; laxhr

laxhr “kCn dk o.kZu fdf’dU/kk dk.M ds 28osa lxZ ds 36osa vkSj 39osa “yksd esa vk;k gSA JhjkepUnz fdf’dU/kkou dk o.kZu djrs gq, y{e.k ls dgrs gSa& **gs y{e.k! ns[kksa Hkzejksa dk xaqatkj oh.kk ds e/kqj Loj tSlk gSA esa<+d ekuksa vius d.B ls rky ds *cksy*] cksy jgs gSaA es?k dk xtZu e`nax ds ukn tSlk lqukbZ ns jgk gSA vkSj Hkh ns[kksa! ;s e;wj laxhr dk dSlk n`; mifLFkr dj jgs gSaA bu yEch&yEch pksfV;ksa okys e;wjksa esa ls dqN rks ukp jgs gSa] dqN xk jgs gSa rFkk dqN o`{kksa ds vxzHkkx esa cSBs gq, bl u`R; vkSj xku dk vkuUn ys jgs gSa] yxrk gS ou esa laxhr py jgk gSA** bl ;qx esa ok|] xku vkSj u`R; rhuksa ds lewg fy, ds *laxhr* “kCn dk iz;ksx gqvk gSA jkek;.k eas xhr “kCn dk iz;ksx Hkh vusdksa ckj fd;k x;k gSA blls izrhr gksrk gS fd jkek;.k dky rd **laxhr* “kCn dk O;kid vFkZ esa iz;ksx gksus  yx x;k FkkA

       fØ;kRed&laxhr vkSj laxhrkkL= ds fy, ml le; *xU/koZ* kCn dk iz;ksx gksus ds izek.k Hkh feyrs gSaA Bkdqj t;nso flag ds vuqlkj& **Hkkjr ls T;s’B jke lalkj Hkj esa xkU/koksZa esa Js’B] vfr; dY;k.kfofkV] lTtu] {kkse ds dkj.k mifLFkr gksus ij v{kqC/k jgus okys egkefr FksA** bl lanHkZ esa *xkU/koZ* dk vFkZ Vhdkdkjksa us laxhrkkL= vFkok kkL=K fy;k gSA ,d vU; o.kZu ds vuqlkj laxhr ds fy, xkU/koZ rFkk ;q) laxhr ds fy, ;q) xkU/koZ laKk izkIr gksrh gSA lkeosn&dky ls gh “kkL=fofgr laxhr dks nskh&laxhr ls fHkUu le>k x;k gSSSA oSfnddky esa kkL=h; laxhr ds fy, xkU/koZ laKk izkIr gksrh gSA jke;k.k dky esa ekxZ&laxhr dks cgqr mPp LFkku izkIr FkkA ekxZ&laxhr ds y{k.kksa dk o.kZu djrs gq, dgk x;k gS fd ftldk nsorkvksa ds lEeq[k iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gks vkSj tks eqfDrnk;d gks] og ekxZ&laxhr gSA xkU/koZ ds fy, Hkh cryk;k x;k gS fd tks nsorkvksa dks b’V vkSj Js; dk gsrq gks] og xka/koZ gSA vr% xkU/koZ *ekxZ* dk gh i;kZ; dgk tk ldrk gSA

    jkek;.k esa pkj¨a Ádkj ds ok|¨a ds Á;¨x dk mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA rr~ ok|¨a ds vUrxZr oh.kk] foiaph rFkk oYYkdh vkfn] vku) ds vUrxZr lÒh Ádkj ds <¨Yk lEcU/kh ok|] Òsjh] nqUnqfÒ] e`nax] iVg] e.Mwd] fMf.M+e] i.ko] eqjt] dqEÒ] psfYkdk rFkk lqf"kj ds vUrxZr os.kq] 'ka[k rFkk ?ku ds vUrxZr djrkYk] eathjs ,oa ikf.koknd¨a d¨ j[kk tk ldrk gSA vou) oxZ ds ok|¨a d¨ gkFk v©j n.M n¨u¨a ls ctk;k tkrk FkkA dgk tkrk gS fd blds n.M lqo.kZ ds Òh g¨rs F¨A of.kZr ok|¨a d¨ n¨ fof'k"V Ádkj¨a ls Á;¨x fd;k tkrk FkkA dqN ok|¨a dk laxhr lEcU/kh rFkk dqN ds vU; dk;¨± esa Á;¨x gkus ds ladsr feYkrs gSaA blh Ádkj dqN ok| ,sls Òh F¨] ftudk n¨u¨a gh fo"k;¨a esa Á;¨x g¨rk FkkA bl dkYk esa Òh rŸk ok|¨a esa oh.kk d¨ vfr egRoiw.kZ LFkku ÁkIr FkkA dgÈ&dgÈ blds LorU«k ladsr Òh feYkrs gSa] ijUrq lk/kkj.kr% bldk o.kZu xk;u ds lkFk gh ÁkIr g¨rk gSA jkek;.k dkYkhu laxhr esa oh.kk dh oknu fof/k dk Òh o.kZu feYkrk gSA ,sls Òh ladsr feYkrs gSa] ftuls irk pYkrk gS fd oh.kk dk oknu d¨.k rFkk uk[kqu nku¨a gh fof/k;¨a ls fd;k tkrk FkkA jkek;.k esa rq;Z 'kCn ÁkIr g¨rk gSA lEÒor% ;g o`Unoknu ds vFkZ esa Á;qä gqvk gSA

u`R; dk mYY¨[k jkek;.k esa vusd LFkku¨a ij gqvk gSA Òkjrh; ijEijk ds vuqlkj 'kkóh; vFkok Yk©fdd u`R; dk Á;¨x Òh laxhr dh gh ÒkfUr Òkxoku dh vkjk/kuk ds fYk, fd;s tkus ds ladsr feYkrs gSaA bl ckr dk dqN ladsr mÙkjdk.M ls Òh ÁkIr g¨ tkrk gS] tgk¡ jko.k u`R; ,oa xk;u ds lkFk Òxoku dh vkjk/kuk djrk gSA

egkÒkjr dkYk esa “kkL=h; laxhr %&

egkÒkjr esa laxhr ds fYk, ^xkU/koZ* 'kCn dk Á;¨x feYkrk gSA vfrokgq] gkgk] gwgw v©j rqEc# vkfn xkU/koksaZ dk uke Js"B xkU/koksaZa esa Áeq[k ekuk tkrk FkkA xhr v©j xkU/koZ 'kCn dk Á;¨x egkÒkjr esa dbZ LFkkukas ij ,d gh vFkZ ds fYk, fd;k x;k Árhr g¨rk gSA xU/koZ&xhr] u`R; v©j ok| lÒh dk Kku j[krs F¨A egkÒkjr esa osn&xku ;F¨"V :i esa g¨rk FkkA lke&xku dk vusd LFkYk¨a esa mYY¨[k feYkrk feYkrk gSA blds lkFk gh fdlh jktk] ohj ;k ;teku dh Á'kalk esa t¨ xhr xk;s tkrs F¨] mUgsa xkFkk dgk tkrk FkkA oSfnddkYk ls Y¨dj egkÒkjr dkYk rd ;K ds le; osnxku gh ugh g¨rk Fkk] vfirq bl volj ij ,d cgqr cM+s mRlo dk vk;¨tu fd;k tkrk FkkA

jkek;.k dkYk esa t¨ ok| F¨] os lc egkÒkjr dkYk esa Òh ik, tkrs gSaA ftu ok|¨a dk egkÒkjr esa vYkx ls mYY¨[k vk;k gS] os fuEufYkf[kr gSa& Òsjh] rw;Z] okfjt] i.ko rFkk dkL; vkfnA ^r`;Z* ;gk¡ lEÒor% ^rqjgh* ds fYk, Á;qä gqvk gSA ^okfjt* dk bl Álax esa vFkZ gS& ^'ka[kA dkaL;* dk¡ls dk cuk gqvk rkYk ok| gSA Òsjh rFkk i.ko ,d cM+k Òkjh peM+s ls e<+k gqvk ok| Fkk] t¨ lsuk esa ohj¨a d¨ mRlkfgr djus ds fYk, ctk;k tkrk FkkA ^x¨eq[k* ^x©* ds eq[k ds vkdkj dk g¨rk FkkA >>Zjh d¨ >‚a> uked ok| ds leku ekuk tk ldrk gSA xhr ds lkFk i.ko] oa'k rFkk dkaL; rkYk vkfn ok|¨a dk ,d lkFk oknu fd, tkus dk mYY¨[k Òh feYkrk gSA ;Kkfn lekj¨g¨a ij xk;u ds lkFk lnSo oh.kk&oknu fd;k tkrk jgk gSA oh.kk dk bl dkYk esa loZÁeq[k ok| ds :i esa mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA 'kkóh; ijEijk ds xk;u v©j oknu ds Ádkj¨a ls oh.kk d¨ vfÒé ekuk gSA oh.kk bruh 'kqÒ v©j ifo«k ekuh tkrh Fkh fd mls nso rFkk czkã.k iwtk tSls vuq"Bku¨a esa 'kkfeYk fd;k tkrk FkkA rU«kh] oa'kh rFkk ?ku tSls ok|¨a ds Á;¨x ls bl ckr dh iqf"V g¨rh gS fd ra«kh] lqf"kj] vou) rFkk ?ku tSls ok|¨a ds oxÊdj.k djus dh ÁFkk dk ÁpYku ml le; Òh FkkA

u`R; ds mYY¨[k egkÒkjr esa vusd LFkYk¨a ij vk, gSaA dgÈ xk;u] dgÈ oknu ds lkFk rFkk dgÈ Lora«k :i ls u`R; dk o.kZu gqvk gSA vkfnioZ esa vtqZu ds tUe ds le; nsook.kh ds volj ij vIljkv¨a rFkk xa/ko¨aZ ds xk;u&oknu ds lkFk&lkFk jaÒk] eu¨jek rFkk lqfÁ;k vkfn ds u`R;¨a dk Òh mYY¨[k ÁkIr g¨rk gSA æ©inh dh Loj;aoj lÒh uV urZd¨a ls lq'k¨fÒr FkhA Yk¨dikYk dh lÒk esa Òh xa/koZ ,oa vIljkv¨a dk u`R; g¨rk FkkA xU/koZ ^fp«klsu* u`R; ,oa xk;u dk vkpk;Z Fkk] ftlls vtqZu us f'k{kk ÁkIr dh FkhA vtqZu us gh fojkV jktk dh iq«kh mÙkjk d¨ u`R; ,oa xk;u dh f'k{kk nh FkhA u`R; dk egÙo bl ckr ls v©j Òh Li"V g¨ tkrk gS fd mlds fYk, urZukxkj g¨rs F¨] tgk¡ vkpk;Z f'k{kk Ánku djrk FkkA ou eg¨Rlo esa Òh u`R; dk mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA 'osr dk o/k djus ds i'pkr~ nq%'kklu j.kÒsjh ctkdj ukpus Ykxk FkkA vr% ;q) lEcU/kh u`R;¨a dk o.kZu Òh egkÒkjr esa ik;k tkrk gSA

Ákphu Òkjrh; ds thou esa laxhr&dYkk dk ,d egÙoiw.kZ LFkku jgk gSA oSfnd fof/k&fo/kku ds vfrfjä lkekU; turk ds thou ij bl dYkk dk ÁÒqRo lnSo gh jgk gSA Le`fr xzUFk¨a esa oSfnd laxhr ds lkFk gh Yk©fdd laxhr ds O;ogkj ds Òh vusd o.kZu feYkrs gSA bl dkYk esa xhr rFkk u`R; vkfn dYkkv¨a d¨ 'kkldh; Á¨Rlkgu ÁkIr FkkA x¨fÒYk x`ãlw«k ds vuqlkj ÁR;sd fof/k ds ckn Ák;f'pr ds fYk, ^okenso* uked lke dk xku vfuok;Z crk;k x;k gSA lka[;k;u esa fookg ds volj ij xhr rFkk ok| fd lkFk u`R; dk fo/kku ik;k tkrk gSA pkj vFkok vkB lqokfluh fó;k¡ lqjkiku djds lewg esa u`R; djrh FkÈA ^ikjLdj* x`ãlw«k esa fookg ds volj ij oj ds }kjk xhr ds xk, tkus dk fo/kku gSA oj ds fYk, ;g vko';d Fkk fd og ^Ykktk g¨e* ds Álax ij xkFkk uked xhr¨a dk xku djsA ,sls xhr o/kw ds f'kYkkj¨g.k ij xk, tkrs F¨A ;gk¡ ij lke&xku rFkk Yk©fdd laxhr&dYkk d¨ mlh va'k rd Lohdk;Z ekuk tkrk Fkk] t¨ fd oSfnd v/;;u rFkk vuq"Bku esa fo?u igq¡pkus okYkh laxhr&dYkk Ákphu vkpk;¨± dh n`f"V esa loZFkk R;kT; FkhA

tSu dkYk esa “kkL=h; laxhr

tSu dkYk 600 bZ- iwoZ ds YkxÒx ekuk tkrk gSA laxhr ls tSu /keZ Òh vNwrk ugÈ FkkA tSfu;¨a esa laxhr ds Ápkj ds Áek.k ;gÈ ls feYk tkrs gSa fd fofÒé tSu laxhrK¨a us laxhr ds dkQh egRoiw.kZ xUFk¨a dk Y¨[ku dk;Z Òh fd;k gSA tSls&lq/kkdYk'k us laxhr¨ifu"kRlkj¨)kj] ik'oZnso us laxhrle;lkj rFkk e.Mu ls laxhr e.Mu vkfnA tSu xzUF¨a esa ok|¨a ds ckjs esa foLr`r o.kZu ÁkIr g¨rk gSA bu xzUFk¨a esa ok|¨a dh ,d cM+h YkEch lwph feYkrh gS] vU; xzUFk¨a esa bldk vÒko gSA laLÑr xzUFk¨a esa ok| ds fYk,&vkr¨|] rwj] rw;Z] okfn«k v©j ok| vkfn 'kCn¨a dk O;ogkj ik;k tkrk gSA ^frokdje~* uked tSu d¨'k t¨ YkxÒx rhljh bZ- esa fYk[kk x;k tku iM+rk gS] nf{k.k Òkjr ds Ákphu laxhr ls lEcfU/kr dkQh egRoiw.kZ tkudkjh miYkC/k djkrk gSA bl xzUFk esa jkx¨a ds n¨ Ádkj crk, x, gSa& iw.kZ v©j viw.kZA vFkkZr~ lÒh lkr Loj¨a ds jkx v©j i‚ap ;k N% Loj¨a ds jkxA iw.kZ jkx d¨ nf{k.k Òkjr esa ^i.k* dgrs gSa v©j viw.kZ d¨ ^frje~*A blesa ckbZl Jqfr;¨aa dk Òh mYY¨[k gS rFkk lkr Loj¨a ds rfeYk uke¨a ds lkFk&lkFk ækfoM+ ds lkr jkx¨a dk Òh o.kZu blesa ÁkIr g¨rk gSA

tSu ijEijk ds vuqlkj vkfne u`R; rFkk ukVÓ egkohj dh thouh ij vk/kkfjr Fkk rFkk blesa iq#"k ,oa efgYkk n¨u¨a ds }kjk leqfpr Òwfedk dk vfÒu; fd;k x;k FkkA jkevorkj ohj ds vuqlkj %& ^^t¨ efgYkk,a /kkfeZd mRlo¨a] lÒkv¨a v©j vf/kos'ku¨a ds le; u`R;kfn dk;ZØe¨a esa Òkx Y¨rh FkÈ] mudk lEeku fd;k tkrk FkkA** ok|&o`Un vFkkZr~ dqri rFkk u`R; dk Án'kZu dYkkRed vkÑfr;¨a ds ek/;e ls fn[kk;k tkrk FkkA LofLrd] o/kZekud] Òæklu] dYk'k] eRL;] JhoRl rFkk niZ.k bR;kfn ,slh u`R;kÑfr;‚a FkÈA u`R;&ukV~~; ds vUrxZr nq;] foYkafcr] nq;foYkafcr] vafpr] fjfÒ;] vkjÒM~] Òl¨Yk¨] vkjÒMÒl¨Ykk] ladqfp;] ilkfj;] ÒUrlÒkUr rFkk mIi;;ior bR;kfn vax¨ dk mYY¨[k tSu xzUFk¨a esa ÁkIr g¨rk gSA blesa ls dqN u`R; Yk;¨a ds]  dqN vfÒu; Ádkj¨a ds rFkk dqN u`R; Ádkj¨a ds rFkk dqN u`R; Ádkj¨a ds funsZj'kd Árhr g¨rs gSaA

c©) dkYk esa “kkL=h; laxhr

bl dkYk esa xk;u] oknu ,oa u`R; ds Ák;% ,d lkFk gh mYY¨[k ÁkIr g¨rs gSa] ijUrq dqN LFkku¨a ij dsoYk u`R; ,oa dgÈ dsoYk oknu ds lkFk Òh xk;u dk mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA bl ckr dk bud¨ lgt gh Kku Fkk fd xk;u ,oa oknu ijLij Loj esa feYkk g¨uk pkfg,A blds vÒko esa laxhr l©Un;z jfgr ,oa d.kZdVq g¨ tkrk gSA tkrd ;qx esa osn rFkk osnkax¨a dk v/;;u oSlk gh ÁpfYkr Fkk] tSlk oSfnd ;qx esa FkkA ^rsfoTt* lqÙk esa lke ds NkUn¨X; pj.k dk o.kZu feYkrk gSA oSfnd _pkv¨a dh ÒkfUr c©) lqÙk¨a d¨ lLoj i<+us dh ijEijk FkhA ^ikYkh*] ^egkokx* rFkk ^mnkx* esa Li"V mYY¨[k gS fd x©re dh bPNkuqlkj ^d¨.k dqfÍd..k* uked fÒ{kq us ^vV~~BofXxd* lw«k¨a d¨ lLoj i<+k FkkA blds lkFk gh ikYkh f«kfiVd¨a vFkok c©) ^ghu;ku* /kkjk esa fÒ{kqv¨a  ds fYk, laxhr d¨ loZnk fuf"k) ekuk x;k FkkA

ikYkh ^f«kfiVd¨a* esa xkFkk xk;u ds Òh vusd o.kZu ÁkIr g¨rs gSaA xkFkk xk;u ds lkFk oh.kk oknu dk mYY¨[k vU; LFkYk ij Òh ns[kk tk ldrk gS] tg‚a ^nh?kZ dqekj* e/kqj Loj ls jktk dh gfUr'kkYkk esa xk;u rFkk oh.kk dk dq'kYkrk ls oknu djrk FkkA jktk blds xk;u&oknu ds ek/kq;Z ls bruk ÁÒkfor gqvk fd mld¨ vius jkT; esa gh fu;qä dj fYk;kA ,sls Òh o.kZu feYkrs gSa fd xkFkk,a cq) /keZ la?k ds Kkrk czkã.k¨a ds fo"k; esa Òh xkbZ tkrh FkÈA ^fVDd.k* uked czkã.k us ,sls gh czkã.k¨a dh xkFkk xkbZ FkhA xkFkk xk;u dh 'kq)rk ij Òh i;kZIr /;ku fn;k tkrk FkkA nh?kZLoj ls xk;u djus dh i)fr dk Ápkj FkkA ^nh?kZ* xk;u vk/kqfud vkYkki dh ÁfØ;k ds leku le>k tk ldrk gSA

c©) lkfgR; esa rr~] forr~] ?ku rFkk lqf"kj( bu pkj¨a Ádkj ds ok|¨a dk Ápqj mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA bl dkYk esa ok|¨a dh /ofu d¨ ifo«k ekuk tkrk FkkA rr~ ok|¨a ds vUrxZr oh.kk] ifjokfnuh] foiaph] oYYkdh] egrh] udqYkh] dPNih rFkk rqEoh.kk vkfn dk Áeq[k LFkku FkkA oh.kk rr~ ok|¨a ds fYk, lkekU; laKk FkhA oh.kk dh rqEch ds fYk, ^chYkhQYk* dk mi;¨x fd, tkus dk o.kZu Òh feYkrk gSA bl dkYk esa lirU«kh oh.kk Áeq[k ,oa Yk¨dfÁ; ok| ds :i esa ÁpfYkr FkhA oh.kk rFkk e`nax ctkus ds fYk, n.M dk Á;¨x g¨rk FkkA e`nax ds lkFk gh i.ko] Òsjh] fMf.Me rFkk nqUnqfÒ vkfn dk ÁpYku Òh FkkA ?kuok|¨a esa ?k.Vk] >YYkjh] tYYkh rFkk dkaL;rkYk dk Ápkj FkkA lqf"kj ok|¨a esa rw;Z] 'ka[k] dqjkYk rFkk J`ax vkfn dk ÁpYku FkkA cq) ds tUe¨Rlo ij 500 ok|¨a dk o`Un&oknu( ml le; ds o`Un&oknu dh lqn`M+ fLFkfr dh v¨j ladsr djrk gSA

bl dkYk esa lewg u`R;¨a ds Òh Ápkj ds Áek.k feYkrs gSaA l¨Ykg urZfd;¨a ds ,d lkFk u`R; ;k lewg u`R; dk mYY¨[k Òh ,d LFkYk ij vk;k gSA ^dqV~~Vd* laKk ml dkYkhu ds fYk, Á;qä dh xbZ gS] ftl ij urZfd;k¡ u`R; djrh gSaA u`R; mRlo¨a esa r¨ g¨rk gh Fkk] lEekuh; O;fä dh e`R;q o vfUre laLdkj vkfn ds volj ij Òh fd;k tkrk FkkA cq) dh e`R;q ds volj ij ^eYYk¨a* us dbZ fnu rd xk;u] oknu rFkk u`R;kfn fd; FkkA bldk vadu lkaph dh dYkk esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA bu eqækv¨a ds fo"k; esa foLr`r fooj.k Òjr us vius xzUFk ukV~~;'kkók esa Òh fn;k gSA vtUrk o ,Yk¨jk xqQkv¨a esa gqbZ fp«kdkjh ml le; dh fp«kdYkk rFkk u`R;dkj¨a dh fofo/k eqæk,a c©) dkYk esa u`R; dYkk dh mér voLFkk d¨ Áekf.kr djrh gSA

ikf.kfu dh v"Vk/;k;h esa “kkL=h; laxhr

ikf.kfu Ñr v"Vk/;k;h O;kdj.k dk lcls fo[;kr xzUFk gS O;kdj.k dk xzUFk g¨us ij Òh mä xzUFk laxhr dk ,d vLQqV js[kkfp«k ÁLrqr djrk gSA xk;u] oknu rFkk u`R; rhu¨a gh rRo¨a ds mYY¨[k ikf.kfu us ;«k&r«k fd;s gSA o`Un&oknu dk Òh mYY¨[k v"Vk/;k;h esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA laxhr ds fYk, ikf.kfu us ^f'kYi* laKk dk Á;¨x fd;k gSA ^f'kYi* ds vUrxZr xk;u] oknu rFkk u`R; rhu¨a dk lekos'k FkkA

v"Vk/;k;h esa xhfr] xs;] xk;d] xk;u vFkkZr xkus okYkk] urZd v©j ifjoknd vkfn dk mYY¨[k vk;k gSA v"Vk/;k;h ds ,d lw«k esa rq;k±x dk mYY¨[k Òh feYkrk gSA rq;Z okn~~~; dh ,d cgqr Ákphu laKk gSA t¨ rkfM+r fd;k tk, vFkkZr ftldk gkFk vFkok fdlh vU; oLrq ls guu fd;k tk;] og lc rq;Z gSA rq;Z ds vax d¨ rq;k±x dgrs gSA e`nax ds ctkus okY¨ d¨ ekn±fxd v©j i.ko ds ctkus okY¨ d¨ ik.kfod rFkk n¨u¨ d¨ ,d lkFk ctkus okY¨ d¨ ^ekn±fM+dik.kofde~* dgk tkrk FkkA vou/n okn~~;¨a esa fo'¨"k :i ls e`nax] eM~Mqd] >>Zj v©j nnqZj dk mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA buds ctkus okY¨ d¨ Øe'k% eknZafMd] ekM~~Mqfdd] >k>Zfjd v©j nknqZfjd dgk tkrk FkkA eM~~Mqd] gqMqd tSlk gh d¨bZ N¨Vk okn~~; FkkA >>Zj] >ka> dk gh ,d Ádkj FkkA nnZqj ,d peM+s ls e<+k gqvk Árhr g¨rk gSA

^[kfUrokn* tkrd esa jktfd; eu¨jatu ds vUrZxr xhr] okfn«k ,oa u`R; rFkk ukV~~; d¨ Òh j[kk x;k gSA d©fVY; us xhr] okn~~; rFkk u`R; d¨ laxhr dk vax ekuk gSA v"Vk/;k;h Òh mi;qä rhu¨ rRo¨a dk mYY¨[k djrh gSA xk;u ds fYk, blesa xhfr] xs; rFkk d.B v©j laxfr djus okY¨ ds fYk, xk;d ,oa xk;u rFkk L=h xkf;dk ds fYk, xkf;dk ,oa xk;uh laKk Á;qä dh xbZ gSA u`R;dÙkkZ ds fYk, urZd rFkk okn~~; laxhrdÙkkZ ds fYk, ifjoknd 'kCn dk Á;¨x fd;k x;k gSA jaxeUp ds vfÒu; ds fYk, ^ukVÓ* laKk Òh ÁkIr g¨rh gSA

bl dky esa oh.kk ,oa ok.k dk Hkh mYys[k vk;k gSA rq.ko rFkk os: dk lq"khj okn~~;¨a ds vUrxrZ mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA es?k ds leku xjtuk vFkok flag ds xtZuk ds leku nqUnqÒh dh /ofu g¨rh gSA eM~~Mqd laÒor% N¨Vs vkdkjk okYkk <¨Yk FkkA <Ddk Òh blh oxZ dk okn~~; FkkA gkFk ls rkYk ;k Yk; rFkk xfr Án'kZu dh fof/k ds fYk, ^ik.kh?kkr* rFkk ^rkYk?k* laKk Òh Á;qä dh xbZ gSA o`fÙk ds vUrxZr laxhr ds lEcfU/k Yk;¨ dh Òh lwpuk ÁkIr g¨rh gS] ;Fkk&foYkfEcr] e/; ,oa æqrA /kekZorh JhokLro ds vuqlkj %& ^^vYkkcqoh.kk] oh.kk] ok.k] os.kq] rq.ko rFkk nqUnqÒh vkfn dk mYY¨[k egRoiw.kZ ok|ksa ds vUrxZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA** dkYkhnkl us ^j?kqoa'k* esa ifjokfnuh oh.kk dk mYY¨[k fd;k gS] t¨ lIrfU«k;¨ esa fuc) FkhA Mk- 'kjr pUæ Jh /kj ijkUtis ds vuqlkj %& ^^vou) okn~~;¨a esa >>Zj] nnqZj] e.M~~Mqd rFkk i.ko vkfn ok|ksa dk ÁpYku FkkA e.M~~Mqd dk oknu djus okY¨ d¨ ^e.M~~Mqfdd* o >>Zj ds oknd d¨ ^>k>Zfjd* dgk tkrk FkkA Bkdqj t;nso ds vuqlkj vou) okn~~;¨a esa eq[; :i ls e`nax] e.M~~Mqd] >>Zj v©j nnqZj dk mYY¨[k feYkrk gSA buds ctkus okY¨ Øe'k% eknZafxd] eM~Mqfddk] >k>Zfjd v©j nknqZfjdk dgYkkrs F¨A

सर्वाधिकार लेखक के अधीन सुरक्षित


वैदिक कालीन भारतीय शास्त्रीय संगीत:- एक संक्षिप्त परिचय

वैदिक कालीन भारतीय शास्त्रीय संगीत:- एक संक्षिप्त परिचय

Vedic Music in India has its own lineage and identity that distinguishes it as the oldest tradition of world music.  Origin of Rigveda and the concepts of music and the basic principle of music used in framing the Stanza, Strotra or the Richa of the Veda which were were sung in the metre of lower -higher - middle ascend an descend of the notes. Samveda, Archik, Saam Gaan were the few examples that we can highly consider the uses of music and musical term during the Vedic period. 

The PDF of the document is available in Hindi. Kindly find the link below for the full article. 


लेखक के अधीन सर्वाधिकार सुरक्षित


Introduction to Indian Classical Music

Introduction to Indian Classical Music 

Indian Classical Music, a long musical tradition from the Vedic period, having its own theory and grammar is completely based on the epic appropriate structure which is called Shastra in India. That's why this subcontinental music is called the Shastriya Sangeet, music from the apt of classical epic theory and literature. Bhartiya Shashtriya Sangeet, actually classical music is the best in compiled music from generation to generation with the systematic formation of pitch and scale in various melodic structures. It is organized with strict grammatical rules and regulations and principles of Raga and the melodies but it has wide space to elaborate the musical fragrance with its fame. It has no imprisonment beyond its principle and grammar and each and every artist can explore their own innovations and creativity to explore the Journey of melodies through Raga in Bhartiya Shastrya Sangeet restricting the melody within the circumstance and frame of the Raga. It has a boundary but has no limits to exploring the musical essence, fragrance, and beauty of sound and the microtonal elaboration through the moods of every individual artist. It depends upon the creativity: practice and innovation of artists that how much he/she can explore the musical core through Raga with fundamental theories of Indian Classical Music in various aspects.


          There are two major classifications in Indian Classical Music supposed to divide in the 13th Century after the Mughal invasion in the Northern part of the Indian continent. The foreign rulers attack Bharat Desh from its western corner and move towards to eastern and northern parts and ruled over the centuries. Persian, Arabian, Turkish empires, and the Sultanates of Mughals whose arrival in Bharat with different cultural and linguist behavior mixed with the Hindu tradition, results in the mixture which eventually named as Hindustani Shastrya Sangeet and Carnatic Music. The northern and North Western part of India was mostly captured by the Mughals so the fertility of Classical Music tradition was mixed with the Persian music and Arabic influence in their court were as the southern part of the Indian subcontinent was less influenced by the Sultans and Mughals so the pure tradition of Vedic Music remain unchanged in South India. The tradition of Indian Classical music has a huge lineup to explore, to understand, and to research where hundreds of thousands of years of convention nurtures can be noticed with its eternal beauty and cluster of aesthetics in Raga and Rasa. 

 Hindustani Classical Music:-

Hindustani Classical music precisely called Uttar Bharatiya Shastriya Sangeet widely popular in almost all the parts of the Indian Subcontinent. Hindustani Music places highlights on the improvisation aspect of Raga. The principle of the Raga Recital was firstly recited in Brihaddeshi by Matang Muni, a follower, and disciple of Bharat. Initially, the refined musical treaties were written by the Bharat in Natyashastra in the 2nd century BC describing the basic elements of Sangeet and Natya with other elements and essentialities to flourish the Vedic tradition. Later on, various other scholars refine and enlarge the concept of Raga and Geetam Vadyam tatha Nrityam trayam sangeetamucheyate to its extent. Among the notable authors, Pandit Sharangadev was one who recited an epic book called Sangeeta Ratnakar in the 13th Century and drives the vast theory of Indian music to the scholarly position. It is also said that after the period of Sharangadev, the two distinct traditions of Hindustani and Carnatic musical forms emerge and slowly flourished in Northern and Southern India respectively. There are some notable authors and musicologists during the medieval period who explore the musical concept and accelerate to form the ideal tradition what we practice and learn today are Vidhyarande, Vainkatamakhi, Ramamatya, Lochan, Bhao Bhatt, Amir Khushoro, Tansen, Baiju Babra, Mutta swami Dikshytar, Swami Haridas, Purandaras, Tyagaraja, Nanyadev, Swati Tirunal, Mansingh Tomar, Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, Ramashrey Jha, etc.


Hindustani music is a colloquial combination of mood and melodies which are germinated and flourished in the soil of the Indian Sub-Continent. It has various sub-division singing styles popular with the generation carrying from the Vedic period to the Ancient period to Medieval Period to Modern to Postmodern period. Shaam Gaan, Jati Gaan, Margi Sangeet to Deshi Sangeet to Prabandha Gaan, Dhrupad-Dhamar, Sadara, Khyal, Thumri, Dadra, Tappa to various other forms are the innovations of caring musical tradition from beginning to present time. The distinct form of Hindustani Sangeet emerges in the medieval period with the mixture of Arabic and Persian in Sanskrit. Sanskrit was the most prominent language and widely spoken all over the Indian Sub-Continent and also the official language to communicate in the society.  Sufi and Qawwali were supposed to be popular among Muslims and Dhrupad-Dhamar and Bhakti Sangeet was well flourished among Hindus. Later an imaginary form of classical music with a wide area of innovation named Khayal immerge in North India. Agra and Braj was the place where Khyal Music was largely fertile and spread to the rest part of North India. Court Musician Sadarang and Adarang from Arga were supposed to be the Innovator who popularize the Khyal style of Hindustani Classical music. Some scholars believe that Swami Haridas of Vrindavan initially recited Khyal in the divine remembrance of Lord Krishna which was later adopted by his contemporary artist and later spread to the society. Khyal means care, remembrance, or innovation so he sang first to Lord Krishna and the style slowly spread to the surroundings nearby and after a century or more Sadarang-Adarang court, musicians of Mohammad Shah Rangeley spread it to popularize in great extent.

          Hindustani classical music has changed its form from time to time. After the British conquest, most of the oral tradition system has transcribed in a text form by many Indian Scholars as well as a few foreign Authors and researchers and also done a substantial effort to preserve the oral tradition. Devnagri script of Hindi language and English have commonly accepted languages with other regional languages like Urdu, Bangla, Marathi, Nepali, and Punjabi for the research and transcribe the huge tradition of Indian music in a systematic and scholarly way.

The major style of Hindustani Shastriya Sangeet is associated with Dhrupad, Dhamar, Sadra, Khyal, Thumri, Tappa, Trivat, Chaturanga, Tarana, etc. Some folk musical traditions smarten up to semi-classical based on some typical Ragas like Khamaj, Bhairavi, Kafi, Desh, Pahadi, Mand, Pilu, Tilang, Sarang, etc. These Ragas are sometimes called an upgraded version of folk melodies to systematic music form. The refurbished semi-classical compositions like Kajri, Chaiti, Bhajan, Jhula, Kirtan and Geet Ghazals, etc are also upgraded from to the classical/ semi-classical form from the living tradition of Folk repertoire now popularly based on melodies of Ragas.

Dr. Kumar Sargam 

Understanding the components of Hindustani Classical Music

To the continuation of understanding  Indian Music, here we discuss the various components and terms used in understanding the Raga


          The meaning of alpatto in Indian Classical music is a particular note or swar used in a raga with little emphasis. The swar is used but with lesser importance than the other Bahuto notes. Alpatto swar are of two kinds, Langhan Alpatto, and Alanghan Aalpatto. Langhan  Aalpatto is those notes which are omitted in many aspects during Ascending and descending.  Alanghan Alpatto is the note with lesser importance but cannot be omitted during Ascending and Descending in Raga singing. Alpatto Swar is also called the passing notes.



          Literary, Bahutto means the most frequent notes in Raga. It is also called the predominance note in a particular raga. Bahutto Swar has two kinds, Langhan Bahutto, and Alangan Bahutto. Langan Bahutto means that notes are used to assort frequently either in Aroha or Avroha but omit sometimes according to the certain grammatical order of a particular Raga. In Raga Yaman Sadaj and Pancham are frequently omitted during Aroh but still, the position of Sadaj and Pancham is dominant. Alangan Bahutto is those notes which are very important in Raga and cannot be omitted on either side of ascent or descent.  These notes are the most frequently used Swar in many aspects to form the structure of the Raga. Gandhar and Nishad are the Alangan bahutto Swar or Raga Yaman. The Musical Note with high emphasis in a raga is the Bahutto generally the bahutto swar.


Aang :-

          Aang means the part of the portion of the combination of a few notes that describe the quality of a certain melody. In Hindustani music, aang represents the part of an octave or the quality of Raga. The aspect of Aang is simultaneously described in both aspects to explain the worth of Raga-aang and Thaat-aang.  Here we discuss the thaat-aang. An octave can be divided into two Aang, the First part SRGMP in Call purav-aang, and the second MPDNS is called Uttar-aang. It can be said that purvang means pre-portion and uttarang means the post portion. But M and P are common in both parts. While time division and Vadi Samvadi this aang play a great role. It is a tradition that if the Vadi swar is from purvang then the Samvadi must from Uttrang or Vice-Versa. Some scholars consider SRGM as Purvanga and: PDNS as Uttranga but the concept/difference earlier is more justified because some Raga having Pa Vadi and Sa Samvadi are considered as purvang. Vadi Raga and Ma Vadi and Sa Samvadi Raga of Uttrang Pradhan Raga. So the Concept of Anga is clear which makes classical music more systematic and appropriate in the Raga division.


Ansa Swar:-

          Ansa with reference to the music is the most important role used in Raga It is the most centered note around with other notes are composed to express the spirit of Raga. Ansa swar is also called the heart of the raga. At present day, Ansa swar is considered and measured as vadi swar. Such notes in Raga are determined according to their importance in mutual relationships, Vadi, Samvadi, Anuvadi, and Vivaadi. In order to determine such combination consonance, dissonance, assonance is taken in a frame to form a Raga with certain rules. Among these, the Vadi has great importance in the formation of a raga. Thus the Ansa swar is regarded as Vadi Swar in Hindustani classical music.


Anagat- Atit:-

          The musical terminology of Anagat is simply understood as the beat before Sam. The Musician who expresses the musical though with the combination of various Layakri and comes to Sam before the Sam of Tabla or Pakhawaj actually means Anagat. It can be noticed two different Sama within a small fraction of time in Anagata. To maintain this kind of layakari is quite hard and needs extensive reeyaz in advance level of singing and playing an instrument. Whereas Atit means after the Sam. Sam means the together and musician generally pick the sam in the same time with the same rhythms. Atit means the Sam in percussion comes first then the singer with a little fraction of time. Sometimes it creates confusion to the rhythmic variation but the accomplishment of the musician rather than his rhythmic weavers may appear to a great extent which creates an extraordinary scenario during the raga recital.



          Musical term of Aaghat and Anaghaat means with beat and without beat. This is the rhythmic variation resembling Syncopation. When the rhythmic accents of music fall in beat called Aaghaat and same fail in between the rhythmic accounts of the percussion accompaniment is called Anaghaat variation of rhythm.


Aahat Naad - Anahat Naad :-

          The variation of sound is produced by a stroke on some object in Aahat Nada. Each and every sound has a vibration and frequency which is produced with colliding of two objects are admitted as Aahat Nada. Anahat Nada is those sounds produced without any physical effort of any object. It is other than the self-emanation wave. Anahat Nada is the spontaneous, infinite, and meta-physical sound that can be realized in the eternal soul. It is like a cosmic wave continuously vibrating in the body without any physical effort.



          The word baddha means to attach or bound with something or somebody. In music, bound means to attach with Tala so Nibaddha means bound by Tala, Chanda, or Matra in a perfect rhythmic meter. In Nibaddha Sangeet all the rhythmic cycles are pre-determined with Tala, Laya, Matra, or Chanda. The Bandish, Gaat are Nibaddha compositions. The musical parts which are free or not bounded with the tala, Chanda, or Matra are Anibaddha Sangeet. Aalap, Badhat, free Taan are example of Anibadha Sangeet. Hindustani classical music in the combined form of Nibaddha and Anibaddha Sangeet.



          The first phase of the song or Bandish which is always the beginning of the composition is called stahi. It is also called the face of the composition separately sing after each stanza. Sthai in Hindi means permanent so the first stanza of the Bandish is always regarded as the permanent or the beginning of the Composition which remains unchanged is called Sthai.

          Antara means the conjunction which joins the two stanzas. It is also called the narrow pass, which joins the second pass of the song. In Classical music, Antara is regarded as the conjunction of Sthai and Abhogi. Now the tradition of Abhog and Sanchari is quite unusual in Khyal singing so the meaning of Antara might have changed and only one Stanza following the Sthai is called Antara in Bandish. In Dhrupad Tradition Antara is the second stanza because Abhog and Sanchari are still in practice. The concept of Sthati and Antara might have come because of Scale. It is noticed that sthai in always towards Madhya Shadaj, Antara in the middle of Gandhar to pancham, Abhogi is pancham to higher Shadaj and Sanchari is the last phase ending with the higher octave notes of the Bandish. The concept of Sthai and Antara of past centuries was different than what exactly is practiced today.



          The word Vadi-Samvadi has great importance in the Raga system of Indian Classical Music. As per the Shastra defines, Vadi Swar means the King note of a particular Raga. It is also admitted as a most prominent note which emphasizes the color of Raga to some extent. Samvadi Swar is the second important note which directly communicates with the Vadi or determines the Sonant relationship between these two notes either of a perfect fourth or perfect fifth.  In the Indian concept, the relationship between Vadi and Samvadi should be of 9th Shruti or 13th Shruti differences. This is called Shadaj-madhyam bhav or Shadaj-Pancham bhav.  Each Vadi Swar has its Samvadi Swar in either the 9th Shruti difference or the 13th Shruti interval from its position.

          In the Hindustani Raga-Ragini system, Vadi-Samvadi appears to harmonize the basic relationship of two notes. The Ragas of a similar scale can be noticed because of Vadi-Samvadi. Raga, Puriya, Marwa, Sohani are of the same scale but their fragrance and color are distinct because of Vadi-Samvadi. In puriya Ga-Ni, in marwa Re, Da and in Sohani Da, Ga are Vadi Samvadi. Thus Vadi-Samvadi is those two-sonant-consonant notes which are the heart and breathe of the Raga where the Real Fragrance of particular Raga resides.


Anuvadi-Vivadi :-

          Anuvadi Swar is those Assonant notes which are rather than Vadi-Samvadi and have great importance in building the raga. It is also defined somewhere as the follower of Vadi notes is called Anuvadi Swara. It is always third from the vadi on the shruti norms Vivadi Swar meaning here appears to be vaguer. The dissonant note is an accident Swar sometimes uses in raga to ornamented the fragrance of raga and disappear like nothing was then to show its existence. There in particular rules of vivadi note. The Sangeet Shastra determines the positioning Vivadi swar in particular Raga. Practicing of Vivadi note should be under the guidance of Guru as per the Shastra. Unusual and unnecessary users of vivadi notes may affect the real fragrance of Raga.



          With the understanding of Raga, the Rest note where breath can be taken with sustain for sometimes is called Nyasa Swar. It is variable Raga to Raga, as shastra defines. Before the conception of Raga-Ragini, Graha, Nyasa, Apanayas, Vinyas were indispensable in the description of Jati Gayan. Apanyas is rarely in use nowadays. In shastra, it is defined as the last note or the ending role of a certain phrase of Raga. It is the note where the musician rest for some moment to frame the melody. It can be said that the short interval of time where the musical terms are rested and re-start is called Aapanyas in very short.


          The ascending part where the note inclines towards the higher pitch is called Aroha and descending series of the notes from higher to lower pitch in Avroha. In simple language, Aroha-Avroha means climb-up and climb down from Sa to Ni and Ni to Sa. In every musical melody ascending descending arrangement of the notes are most essential to stimulate the perfect combination. It is musically only possible when the position is proportionate and forms a raga or a melody. This Aroha and Avroha is the basic fundamental aspect of Indian Classical Music.


A Career in Music and Performing Arts

A career in Performing Arts (Music)


Undoubtedly, music is such universal media that has the power to transcend all geographical boundaries. Surely, it soothes emotions and can express inner feelings. There is rarely anyone among us who is not touched by music in some way or the other.

As we know that music education is not only the subject of performance but also has various approaches to human life. It is emerging as a new subject of social and cultural behavior of human being throughout the globe. It has various streams to go further and study in-depth, with lots of possibilities in the present scenario. Besides academic education, it has also a lot of potential in the modern world relating to the Music Industry, Films, Recording, and Broadcasting, and also applied with Music Therapy, Psychology, and various other subjects. Department of Performing is fully dedicated to the academic course for the substantial development of Music Education, Performance, and Research and Music Production in the field of music through elaborative knowledge with various professional and Talented Faculties. Here students are benefited from an academic course of Indian Classical Music as well as Performance-based on Raga- Ragini, Semi-Classical Music, and other Modern Musical forms. The Department as well provides enthusiastic knowledge in Sound Designing and Studio Techniques in Music Production. The Department of Performing Arts also organizes Music Symposiums, Seminars, Workshops, Guest Lectures, and various other performance-based programs to enhance the knowledge in Music Performance and other relative fields in Music Education. Apart from the daily classroom practice, LPU also provides extensive knowledge of the Music Industry through a few field visit programs and interactive sessions with well-established Singers and Musicians.

The Department of Performing Arts, Lovely Professional University is also well focused on the career pathway of the students in various aspects.  For a career in music, talent, sincerity, and willingness to work hard are must be deserved and essential gateway with zeal for regular practice.

A career in Music:-

Career opportunities are plenty in this field just as there are a plethora of music forms like Classical, Folk, Jazz, Pop, Fusion, etc. Besides becoming a performer (vocal or instrumental) or a teacher, one can opt for roles ranging from a Composer/Song Writer, Music Publisher, Music Journalist, Disc Jockeys/ Video Jockeys to Music Therapist and Artist manager. Today with the advent of the Internet, YouTube, and various web-based platforms coupled with the growing popularity of the Music Channels and corporate sponsorship of musical events, has all created music a huge industry with immense potential. Apart from these web-based platforms, Satellites Television also creates a global market in Music Industry. Various Music Channels, FM, and Radio are also potential platforms for a career in Music.


Music is diverse and multiple wing subject that students can choose the career as per their efficiency and interest with relevant to their musical exploration and extensive knowledge in various aspects of practical and theoretical understanding in Music Education. To become a Playback Singer and Musician one should focus on Riyaz and Performance-based practice which could enhance the musical career as a Performing Artist. Apart from performance, students also can explore their career as a Music Composer in Film Industry or the Web Series, or other popular Television Serials. There is also a wide scope in background scoring for the Web Series, Tele-Films, Short Films, and Music Composer for Jingles and Advertise under the many productions and advertising houses. The students can also prepare for a reality show-based career for the TV shows like Indian Idol, SaReGaMaPa, Rising Star, The Voice, and many other national and state-based reality shows. There is always a wide scope in making your own Band and establishing yourself as a popular singer is also the best profession with highly regarded dignity in the field of Performing Arts.


A student independently can choose a career as a researcher even after higher studies in Music. Musicology and Ethnomusicology is the vast area of research having huge potential in the global market. Music Critics, Creative writers, bloggers, Book writers, and Music columnists are a few new areas where a music student can find his/her career as per his passion and interest. Research in Foreign Universities with a worthy Fellowship can boost your profession as a highly regarded academician and researcher in Music. The applied music sector is one of the emerging subjects that music students can explore with various potential and could achieve a career as a Music Therapist and Counselor. There are broad areas to enrich yourself and establish a versatile personality in the field relating to Music and Tourism, Music and Culture, Music and Psychology, Music and Sociology, Music and Linguistics, Music and Religious Study, and many more.


Apart from professional career, music students can also choose the academic and teaching career having handsome salary package in both Government and Private Academic institutions. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan and Navodaya Vidyalaya Sangathan under Central Government recruit PRT, TGT and PGT graded Music Teachers in almost every academic year, so students after Graduation and Post-Graduation can choose the career in such novel field of education Sector.   Army Public School, Delhi Subordinate Service Selection Board, and various state-level recruitment of music teacher job are announced from time to time that students can choose their profession as per their interest. Music is also a keen subject in Schools under CBSE and ICSE board so the students can approach Music teachers in such Institutions. There are various schools with high brand value paying excellent salary packages in such creative arts.


After Post Graduation and UGC-NET, a wide scope of academic acceleration can be achieved, and can choose a career as Assistant Professor, a highly distinguished post in Government as well as Private Universities in India. These posts are fulfilled almost on the basis of written tests and interviews with qualifying few competitive exam variables from university to university. Moreover, there are few other Institutions where music students can approach a new career as an Artist. Ministry of Culture, ICCR, All Indian Radio, Doordarshan, Sangeet Natak Academy are also recruiting Musicians and Singer for the various programs designed by the government.


With diverse scope and opportunities, Music education in the Department of Performing Arts, Lovely Professional University, creates the immense prospect of learning through the various aspects of musical extravaganza and new approaches which creates multiple career pathways in the field of Performing Arts. Versatility and innovative Music Education, performance, and career-oriented education with highly talented Faculties is the basic motto of the Department of Performing Arts, Lovely Professional University.

Dr. Kumar Sargam 


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