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Raga Kafi- A Scale of Romance

  Raga Kafi

          Raag Kafi is also the elementary Raga classified under the Kafi Thaat of Hindustani classical music by Pt. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. It is known as Ashrya Raga of Kafi that where Gandhar and Nishad are Komal and the rest of the notes are Suddh. Rag Kafi is Sampurna-Sampurna Jati Raga because all seven notes are being used in both Aroah and Avroah. The singing time of this raga is midnight according to the Shastra. Pancham is considered the main note called Vadi Swar and Shadaj in the Samvadi note whereas Shadaj, Rishav and Pancham are the Nyas Swar of this Raga.

          The beauty of Raga Kafi is Shringar Rasa either of affection or diffraction. It is widely popular in Bhajan, Geet, Ghazal, and other semi-classical forms like Dadra, Thumri, etc. In the Khyal tradition of Hindustani Classical Music, Vilambit Khyal is rare to listen in Raga Kafi. Dhrupad style of Hindustani Classical music is also uncommon in Raga Kafi. 

Raga Kafi is a very common raga and also the Ragaang most often used in creating the Mishra and Sankiran Raga. the Phrase note determining Raga Kafi is being used in various Raga ie. Kafi Kanhara, Pilu, Ahir Bhairav, Desi, Sindura and more. Sa Re Re, ga ga , ma ma, Pa...,  Dha ma Pa ga Re, Sa ni Dha ni Sa, Re RE ga ga ma ma Pa, are few among the combination of the notes of this raga called Kafi-aang. Perhaps, the Raga Kafi is a fundamental Raga of Hindustani Music but it needs to be guided in the proper way under the guidance of Guru to understand the nature framing the structure and technique of nurturing the Raga. 

Aroha         :        Sa Re ga ma Pa, Dha ni Sa

Avroha       :        Sa ni Dha Pa, Ma ga Re, Sa

Pakad         :        Ga Re, Re ga ga , ma Pa, ma Pa ga Re Sa, Sa Re ni Dha Sa..




Raag Asawari -Minor scale Raga


 Raga Asawari

    Raag Asawari is the fundamental Raga classified under the Asavari Thaat,  one among the ten Thaat of North Indian Classical music.  Aasawari Thaat is formed with the combination of the notes Ga, Dha and Ni are komalFlat)and the rest of the notes are suddh (natural) both in ascent and descent.  In Aroah, Gandhar, and Nishad notes are not permitted and Avaroah is Sampurna and all the Swars are being used in a systematic format to create a  melody of Raga. Dhaivat is considered as the Vadi Swar of the raga and Gandhar is Samvadi Swar. The singing time of Raga Asawari is determined as the second phase of the day between 9am to 12pm. Jati of Raga Asawari in Audhav-sampurna.  Nyas Swar of Raga Asawari is Shadaj, Gandhar, Pancham, and Dhaivat as per the grammatic sequence of the Raga. 

          Raag Aasawari is one of the beautiful melodies among the Ragas of Hindustani Classical music. The note combination of this raga is not so difficult that's why beginners can learn easily. The scale of Asawari is similar to the minor scale of  Diatonic Chord progression in Western Music. There are two different forms of Asawari that are popular in Indian Music, Asawari and Komal Asawari. In Komal Asawari Rishiv is Komal and all the format is similar to Asawari. Sometimes Asawari is also called Shuddha Asawari and Komal Asawari is called as Komal Rishav Asawari. Asawari is not only the Raga but also the Ragangin Indian Classical Music. Various Ragas are formed with the mixture or the combination of few phrases of Asawari in other Ragangs. Re ma Pa dha, ma Pa ga Re Sa, ma Pa dha ma Pa dha ma Pa ga dha ni dha ma ga Re, ma Pa dha dha Sa Re ni dha, etc. are the main phase of this raga. Dev Gandhar, Gandhari, Bilaskhani Todi, Badhuritodi, Jaunpuri are among the few where Asawari Ang is used to forming a new raga.

Aroah         :        Sa Re ma Pa dha Sa

Avroah:                Sa ni dha, Pa , Ma ga Re Sa

Pakad         :        Re ma Pa dha, ma Pa dha ma Pa ga Re Sa


Raga Yaman


Raga Yaman

Raga Yaman is one of the most fundamental Ragas in Indian Classical Music is widely popular in both styles of Hindustani and Carnatic Music. Hindustani Music it gains wide popularity among the artists in all of Classical Music. It is also highly appreciated in film music, Geet Ghazals, and other popular forms of music. In Carnatic Music, it is well known by its name Raga Kalyani under the Mela Mechkalyani.  According to the Contemporary Thaat division system in North Indian Classical Music, Raga Yeman belongs to Kalyan Thaat and has the characteristics of Kalyan Ang. This Raga is often considered as one of the first ragas taught to the music students either of vocal or instrumental in Indian Classical Music.

Raga Yaman is a Sampurna- Sampurna( Heptatonic) Raga has the only fourth note Sharper and rest are natural. The sharper note in Hindustani Music is called Tivra Swar and Natural Notes are called Suddh Swar. The main note of raga Yaman is Gandhar(Ga) which is called Vadi Swar. The Samvadi swar is Nishad(Ni). It is widespread that the difference between Vadi and Samvadi is always the perfect fourth or the perfect fifth. The Nyas or the break Note is Shadaj, Gandhar, Pancham, and Nishad in Raga Yaman. This is very huge raga covers all three Octaves with the fragrance of Shringar Rasa.  The long-established tradition of raga singing confined the timing of raga recital at the First Phase of the Evening.

Basically, Mandra Nishad is the starting note in raga Yaman. In Aroah, it is quite frequent that Shadaj and Pancham are omitted and used in reversed form i.e. Ni Re Ga--, Ga Re Ma Ga Pa --Re Ga--, Ga Ma Da Ni Da Pa---. Raga Yeman is not only the Raga but also the fundamental of Kalyan Ang. There are various raga having the Kalyan Ang used on it like Raga Hamir, Raga Kedar, Raga Chayanat, Raga Maru Bihag, Raga Shyam- Kalyan, Raga Suddh Kalyan, Raga Jait Kalyan, Raga Puriya Kalyan etc.


Aroah:        Ni Re Ga Ma Da Ni Sa or Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Da Ni Sa

Avaroah:    Sa Ni Da Pa Ma Ga Re Sa

Pakkad:      Ni Re Ga Re, Sa --, Ga Ma Pa Ma Ga---, Ma Dha Ni Da Pa, Pa Ma Ga, Re, Ni Re Sa,

Note: Different ways of ascending and descending notes are popular according to the Gharana Parampara in Indian Classical Music. Some spell direct Aroah- Avaroah and some omit Sa and Pa in Ascending but Avaroah(descending) is almost similar in all Gharana. 




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