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Emotions and Appeal of Kanhara, Malhar and Sarang Ang: A Raga Analysis


The emotions and appeal of each and individual raga has its uniqueness in Indian classical music. Among the several, a huge lineage of classical tradition Kahnara-ang with the combination of Malhar-ang can be seen in various raga of Hindustani classical music where Raga Nayaki Kahnara is one among them. Analysis of Ragang (category) along with the note’s combination of Nayaki Kanhara is carried with its Sampratiki (similar nature) raga to identify the difference in emotions and appeal of each and individual raga having the similar Ang (category, sects) with the help of audio- video recording of legendry vocalist of Hindustani classical music, software analysis in Logic Pro X and secondary data from books is done to trace the practical and theoretical difference in these raga. The research experiments are also carried with practices of the raga in classroom teaching to several disciple throughout the period and also experienced through the teaching learning procedure with respected guruji Padmashree Pt. Surendra Mohan Mishra. Uniqueness in Raga conjoining and the notes combination in Nayaki Kanhara, Suha, Sughurai, Shahana, and Devsakh blended with Ragang Kahnara, Malhar and Sarang creates a confluence of Rasanippati (emotional cognition) which is quite unique of its kind. The position of Gandhar and the transition between the Ragaang in Nayaki make it different that other Samprikit raga even having the same notes combination in a bundle of Five Raga that are closed to Nayaki. The Aesthetic and emotions of each and individual raga is kitted with the tinny notes combination which creates a different segment of emotions and appeal in Raga.


Analysis of Kanhara, Malhar and Sarang Ang and its Aesthetics

Malhar-ang is the Ragang of Hindustani classical music which means the melody combination of Komal Nishadwith Suddh RishavSuddh Rishav, a Kaan of Suddh  Madhyam, to  Panchan, ga ma Re Sawhere Andholan (shaking )of Gandhar comes with Kaan of Suddh Madhyam. In Uttrang, Malhar-ang ang is shown   ma Pa ni Dha Ni Sa is one of the prominent phrases used to reach Taar Saptak (high octave). Similarly the Kanhara-ang means the notes combination of Re Re Sa ni Sa, Sa Re ga.. ma Re, Re ni Sa Re .. ga, ma Pa dha…ni Sa, Sa dha… ni Pa, ga ma Re Sa, majorly theKanhara aang is identified as uses of Ati Komal Gandhar and its Andholan, a Kaan of Suddh Rishav when moving towards Aroh and, and Vakra Swaroop of  ga ma Re Sa , Re ni Sa, dha ni Re Sa. The Uttrang of Kanhara-ang is identified with the notes combination of ma pa dha ,,,,, ni , Sa,,, dha ni Re Sa, Sa dha ni Pa. when we look upon the common phrase, the Malhar and the Kanhara share few common Swar and the transition are very similar in few stage. The aesthetic of the both Raga are also very common, perhaps there is a hung variable between the nature of the raga. ShadajSuddh Rishav, Komal Gandhar, Suddh Madhyam, Pancha and Komal Nishad are the common notes used in both Raga. Malhar shares the Suddh Dhaivat and Suddh Nishad in Aroh whereas Kanhara shares Komal Dhaivat, which is different from Malhar in terms of scale. 

As a part of raga analysis, aga Nayaki Kanhara is chosen, and other three raga of similar scale and Suha as Samprakrit raga which are very similar to Nayaki and have a combination of Malhar, Kanhara and SarangSarang-ang is also taken as a transition Ang where researcher can check the aesthetic between Malhar, Kanhara, and Sarang. In these Raga where one Ang disappear to rise another Ang or the combination of Malhar and KanharaMalhar and Sarang, or Kanhara and Sarang created a new raga, unique melody with the combination of either of these three Ang. Hindustani classical music has a uniqueness of its own that the melody of one raga to another raga is created with minor changes in Swar and connection between the notes. There are numerous examples of such raga where minor shifting of Shruti, Swar,or notes combination creates a unique melody. The emotions and the aesthetics of such a melody also have a different shade and different feeling than the parental raga. 

Among such uniqueness, Raga Suha, Raga Shahana, Raga Sugharai, and Raga Devsakh have some common transitions that reflect the uniqueness in terms of emotions and combination of Ragang to create an emotional appeal.Raga Suha; a Kafi thaat  raga is very similar to Nayaki Kanhara shares the similar scale as Nayaki. The Rishav note of this raga is used coiled or curved and Dhaivat is completely forbidden in both Aroh and Avaroh. It’s ascends and descends is ni Sa ga ma, Pa ni Pa ni Sa and Sa ni Pa, ga ma Re Sa. Here the phrases of the raga are a combination of Kanharaand Malhar where Kanhara and Malharang conjoin to create a unique melody- a combination of softness and stability of Kanhara and the bold and romantic frame of Malhar. The first phrase (Purvang) of Suha is representing the Kanhara-angwhereas the second phrase (Uttrang) of Megh. The uniqueness of melody is the conjoining of Ganghar in the raga where ascend of Gandhar represent the Kanhara and descend of Gandhar represent the Malhar-ang. Similarly, in raga Sugharaithe notes combination is very much similar to Nayaki Kahnara. The Dhaivat in the raga is completely forbidden in both Aroh and Avaroh. In few Gharana of Hindustani classical music Dhiaivat in Raga Sugharai is only used in descend (Avaroh). Without using Dhaivat one can maintain the nuances of Sughurai because the position of Dhaivat in raga is very rare so vocalist can maintain the purity of the raga with/without DhaivatRaga Sugharai is created with the combination of Sarang and Kanhar-ang. The ascendance of the raga is: Sa Rem, ga ma ni Pa Ni Sa and descend SaP, ni Pa, ga ma SRe Sa. Melodic structure of Sughurai is a combination of Malhar and Sarang which is assembled in coiled form in the raga. Even though there is no combination Kanhara but still ga ma Re Sa notes are being used to represent the Malhar-ang so the uses of above phrase should be intelligently and as per norms of the raga. Both forms of Nishad are simultaneously used in raga to represent the Sarang-ang. As it can be noticed the descent of the Sugharai is very similar to Raga Nayaki and the Ragaang of the both ragas are also similar but the aesthetics and the emotions is totally different. Sometimes Raga Sugharai is also called Suha-Sugharai, a unique combination of Raga Suha and Sarang-ang.

            Similarly, the raga in the list is Shahana which is also the raga of Kafi Thaat and have similar scale to Nayaki Kahnara but have a huge difference in terms of melody and the emotion and appeal which come with the combination of Ragang Kanhara and Sarang. The Sarnagang that can be seen in Nayakai is not been used in the structure of Raga Shahana. This raga has again a unique formation with the combination of Kanhara with the phrase of BagresheeBaharor sometimes Malhar are used to recreate a variant melody. It is a multi-colored raga having the six notes combination in ascent where Dhaivat is forbidden, but in few traditions all seven notes are used in descent.  Sa Re ga ma, Pa Dha ni , Pa Ni Sa is the Aroh and Avaroh of the raga is: Sa ni Dha ni Pa , ma Pa ga ma Re Sa is one of the coiled and completed mixed ragas that can only be learned only with one on one guidance of guru. The Ragang ni ni Pa ma Pa, ga ma Re Sa, Sa Re ga ma of Kanhar, Sa ma Pa , ga… ma  phrase sometime resemble Raga Baharga ma Dha Dha resemble Bageshree and   ni Pa Ni Sa is a part of Sarang.  A complete phrase Sa ni Dha ni Pa Dha ma Pa Sa, ma Pa ni Pa Ni Sa ni Pa, ga ma Re Sa denotes the Raga Shahana. The short resemblance of Bahar and Bageshree in Sarang and Kahnara-ang makes the raga very special even though the notes of the raga are very similar to all other Samprakritik raga like Suha, Sughurai and Nayaki. The melody of Shahana is very soothing, refreshing and jolly with romantic and softness appeal because of the notes frame of Sarangang with adjoining Kanhara and little flavor of BaharBagesgree and fewer portion of the Malhar. In the series of similarities AangRaga Devsakh is one that also represents the similar combination of Kahnara and Sarangang and also fall under the Kafi Thaat. The Aroh of the raga consist of six notes excluding Dhaivat in ascend, and the descend of the raga is of Sampurna jati where all seven notes but in zig-zag form are used to create a melodic structure of the raga. In some Gharna Dhivat Swar is completely excluded in both Aroh and AvarohSa Rem ga Pa, ma Pa ni Pa Ni Sa,  SaP ni Pam ga ma SRe Sa is the ascent- descent and Sa ma Re pa, ga ma ga Pa, ma pa ni pa, ga ma SRe Sa is the prominent phrase that can use as raga identify- Pakkad for the Raga Devsakh.  It also has the similar combination of Kahnara and Sarang but the Vakra Gandhar -Madhyam with Vakra Dhaivat in Avaroh makes the raga very special. The aesthetic behind the raga is fickle and playful because of Sarangang in Uttrang whereas the boldness and imprescriptibly of Kanhara can be noticed in Purvang


Hindustani Classical music has a very special and uniqueness in raga creation, the notes combination and its tiny connection of micro notes (Anunaad-Shruti) that creates the melody differently even falls under the same Thaat or the same ascend-descend or the similar Ragang combination. The emotion and appeal of Sarang, Malhar and Kanhara can be seen in different shade in these five ragas who share same Thaat and almost the same notes in ascend and descend but the combination of the notes and the interchange between these notes have totally differentiated Raga Nayaki from these Samprakritik raga even share the same Ragang. The emotions of Kahnara-ang in Nayaki Kahnara is knitted with the notes of Malhar where romantic appeal meets the calmness and boldness of Kahnara with flicking notes of Sarang. The combination of Rishav and Panchan of Nayaki cannot be seen in other ragas even having the same Ragang are been used. The uses of Komal Gandhar in these five raga can be minutely studied because the Komal Gandhar used in Nayaki is totally different from Suha, Shahana,Sugharai and Devsakh. The emotions of every raga are totally different even they share the same scale and similar notes combination in term of raga formation. The ascending of Komal Gandhar in all five Raga is representing the Kanhara-ang whereas in descending the knitting of the Komal Gandhar notes comes with Malhar-ang in Nayaki and Suha but the same notes is sung as per Kanhara-ang in Raga ShahanaSughurai and DevsakhSarang-ang is another transition between Kanhara and Malhar in Raga Nayaki but these three Ragang combinations cannot be seen in all five ragas. Sarang-ang is most prominently used in all five ragas but the position of this Ragang is in Uttrang except Sugharai. The Aesthetics of Kanhara threaded with the emotions of Malhar and top-ups of Sarang-ang in Uttrang in Raga Nayaki Kanhara resemble the Sringarik Bhav (love and affection, boldness and little calmness with romance and shower of rain to the fear of thunder representing the Malhar-ang in raga. Shrangrik Bhav, the Rati or the romance, fickleness of SarangDhir-Gambhir with clamness and boldness of Veer Rasa of Kahnara and the SringriktaBhaya -Daar, romance and fear of Malhar makes the Raga Nayaki Kanhara very special and unique among its Samprakritik raga family. This long lineage of Hindustani Classical Music has its own legacy of the raga performance and a tradition that nurtures the extraordinary combination of NaadShruti and Swar to create a unique melody. While examining the notes in logic Pro X, it can be visible the difference of singing Gandhar but machine can only tell the matching or mismatched, similarities and dissimilarities in scale whereas singer need to be trained with proper guidance by the Guru to know the exact notes combination in these ragas to stimulate the exact emotions.  The aesthetics, emotion and the appeal of one raga cannot be the same even with the use of similar notes in Hindustani music because of micro notes combination and its knitting with several passages and pathways of notes to interconnect the melody of the raga.

Note: The notes Sa represent Shadaj, Re – Suddh Rishavga – Komal Gandharma- Suddh MadhyamPa- Pancham, dha – Komal Dhaivat, Dha- Suddh Dhaivat,  ni- Komal Nishad, Ni- Suddh Nishad - 


You can refer this article for more knowledge 


Aesthetics of Raga: Nayaki Kanhara


The beauty that can be experienced while performing/ listening to the raga of Indian classical music is much more associated with the emotions and appeal of the melody. It has no limit and depends on the spectators how he/she observes, experiences and feels the subject while watching or listening to the music. Rasa is a kind of realization and varies from person to person. "Sundarta Dekhne Walo ki Soch Evum Ankho mai Hoti hy" - The sensual transformation that delights and impregnates all aspects of life is a Rasa erupted while realizing the rendering of raga. In addition, the combination of the melody of the raga and mental well-being of the artist, a wave of imagination is created called the emotion of raga.  

            Raga itself is budded with its specific characteristics and the melodic structure that defines the affection and creation of the entire universe as Naad- Brahma (cosmic sound). In Indian classical music Rasa is not only considered as the melody structure but also is a philosophy of Naad, a manifestation of the melody with proper grammatical sequencing of Shruti (micro notes) and Swar (notes) as described in the Veda. The feeling of Rasa while listening to the raga as a listener may have different emotions than the artist who is performing the same. The basic and fundamental thing to realize the aesthetic, beauty, appeal and emotion of raga is to be obliterated from personal ego, imbibe and absorb the melody without any judgment.

The combination of Swar and Shruti is varied in different raga even of similar nature or similar ascent and descent while the aesthetic behind these combinations germinated the frequency of emotions in different aspects. The Nature of Madhyamad Sarang is completely dissimilar and variant than Megh even the notes and scale of the both ragas are of same scale aand structure. Puriya, Marwa and Sohani also have different emotions even sharing the same scale, Bhupali and DeskarJaldhar-Kedar- Durga, Darbari Kahnara- Adana and so many ragas in Hindustani music having same Swar combination, similar scale and same Aroh (ascend) and Avaroh (descend) but have different nature, variant aesthetics and emotions due to the Ragang and the interconnection of notes used in particular raga. Raga-Rasa is thus the term having a simple meaning of realization of the raga. Is it not the matter of analysis or it is not the matter of comparison what the structure of raga is? what is the Swar combination? or what is the Thaat(group), Jati(category), Gayan Samey(timing),Vadi(main notes), Samvadi(corresponding note), but it is only the matter of realization, the feeing and visualization of the raga at any stage as a performer or the audience. 

In Hindustani classical music, the legendary musicologist and the disciple of V N BhatkhandePt. Narayan Moreshwar Khare has discovered the Ragang - a distinct characteristic of the raga commonly used in various categories of the raga. As part of raga Vargikaran (division), he has found 30 distinct Ragang in Hindustani Music which is widely accepted in the late 20th century. Among these thirty Ragang, Malhar and Kahara are the most prominent Ragang and have few similar conjunctions that create the transition between the raga where as Sarangaang is completely different and represent the joyfulness in the raga. It is realized that the interrelation between the raga and Rasa in Hindustani classical music plays a great role to appeal the emotions and establish the melody even if the structure of the notes is the same but erect the different Rasa. Common phrases of Malhar and Kanhara are ga ma Re Sa but the transition and the supporting notes, Meed, Kaan which plays a great role in framing the melody that makes the emotional appeal different even the same phrase of notes are sung together. Naykai Kanhar is one the best example where Kanhara meets Malhar, the same notes Sa Re ga ma in Aroh goes with Kanharang, and Pa mga ma Re Sa comes with Malharang. This phase (ga ma Re Sa) of Nayaki is sung/played on the basis of Malharang even the same phrase is a part of Avaroh which also represent the Kanharan but not used in Nayaki and it is strictly forbidden to use Kanharaang in Avaroh while singing ga ma Re Sa. In the second half scale of the Raga, combination of Sarang and Malhar is blended to form a soothing melody. Kanharabasically have the characteristics of boldness, seriousness and stability on the melody whereas Malhar also have the similar nature but sometimes the romance, fear altogether reflects the maturity and stability in melody. Sarang is a reflection of joyfulness, romance and the adornment of the Nayak-Nayika must dominantly represent the emotions and aesthetics of love and affection (Shringar Rasa).


Objectives of the Study:

The basic objective of the study of the raga with relation to emotions and emotional appeal is to identify the nuances and fineness of the raga as well as its melodic structure and the notes combination of three Ang are being used in the same raga. For this research, five ragas are taken where Malhar-KanharaMalhar -Sarang or Kahnara-Sarang are used i.e Raga Nayaki Kanhara, Suha, Saguhari, Sahana, and DevsakhNayaki Kanhara is the prime raga were major experiment is done because the melody of the Nayaki Kanhara is a combination of three Ragang (Kanhara, Malhar and Sarang). For the understanding of the aesthetics and blending of Ragang Samparkriti Raga SuhaSaghurahi, Sahana and Devsakh are taken because these ragas are created with either of these Ragang Malhar, Kahnara and Sarang. The objective of the study will be i) similarity and distinctness of the emotions and appeal in Malhar, Sarang and Kanhar Ang, ii) an impact of Malhar, Sarang and Kanhara Ang if used in same raga and its uses in terms of phrases and micro notes while creating a melody, iii) analysis of the transition of phrase of Malhar, Sarang and Kanhara in Nayaki Kanhara, how Gandhar- Nishad plays a role in conjoining the Ragang. To establish the above-mentioned objective qualitative methodology will be used to analyze the Swar combination of all five ragas along with the basic framework of Kanharaand Malhar Ang. Review of few Bandishes and musical rendering of Pt. Rajan Sajan, Ustad Rashid Khan, Pt. Bhimsen Josh. Pt, Jasraj, Ustad Aamir Khan and few other renowned vocalists will be carried during the qualitative analysis. Notes combination Re Re Sa ni Sa Re, ga ma Re Sa, Re Pa, ma Pa ni Pa Sa, Pa Ni Sa Re Sa will be examined with software Logic pro X to examine the notes and its frequency and try to identify the similarity of notes and its rendering by the artist, it connecting notes and distinctness in Gharana to Gharana style. Further, self-experience and live performance/demo will be recorded to understand and evaluate the emotions, appeal of both Ang in Raga Nayaki Kanhara.

Raga Nayaki Kanhara: 

Raga Nayaki Kanhara is a raga from the bunch of Kanhara-ang raga that falls under the Kafi Thaat.  Nayaki is one of the famous types of Kanhara supposed to be composed by Gopal Nayak in late 12th century which share a similar scale to Raga SuhaShahana and Devsakh and Sughurai. The most common and similar raga to Nayaki Kanhara is Suhawhich is also called as Samprakritik raga.

            The Raga Nayaki Kanhara is the complex raga with the combination of three RagangsDarbari in Purbang (first phase), Sarang in Uttrang (Second half) and the mixture of Malhar in the center of the scale.  Phrases from these three main ragas were webbed to create the unique melody of Raga Nayaki Kanhara Ni Sa Re Rga-- ma Re Sa or Re ni Sa Re ga... m Re Sa ni Sa Re.., phrases of Raga Darbari, Re....Re Pa ma mga ma Re, Se Re.. of Miya Malhar and ma Pa ni ma Pa, Pa Ni Sa of Sarang were adopted and fused in such a way to create a distinct melody of Nayaki. The notes combination of this raga is unique of its kind and need to take guidance from the expert- teacher before its recital. Special emphasis on Komal Gandhar is the major part of this raga. In Aroh, the Komal Gandhar is sung with the support of Suddh Rishav as similar as in Darbari but in Avaroh the same Komal Gandhar is sung according to Malhar-ang, a Kaan of Suddh Madhyam to Komal Gandhar to Suddh madhyam to Suddh Rishav is the ascending path of this Raga. 

Raga Nayaki Kanhara is one of the popular and prominent raga of Kanhara-ang of Hindustani classical music. The Vadi of the Raga is Madhyam and Sambadi is Shadaj and its singing time is midnight or the third phase of night. The Jati of the raga is Shaddav- Shadav where Dhaivat is completely abandoned in Aroh and Avaroh. Both forms of Nishadare used in raga but the position of Suddh Nishad is restricted only in Aroh and used as per Sarangang ( Pa Ni Sa Re, Pa ni Pa Ni Sa Re,  Re ni Sa...Pa ni Pa ). Komal Nishad is used freely in both Aroh and Avaroh but in Vakra Swaroop(crooked position) i.e  Pa ni Pa Sa , Ni Sa Re Sa ni Pa, ma Pa ni Pa.. Sa .. Crooked and wry position in raga is the common transition where three Ragang are blended to make Nayaki Kanhara and created a unique melody that the parental Raga where those phrases are taken form.  Re ni Sa Re,  ga ma Re Sa Re.., Re Pa , ga ma Re Sa .. ga ma Pa ni Pa , ni Pa ma Pa ga ma Re , Pa ,, ni Pa ma Pa ni Pa Sa.., Pa Ni Sa Re Sa ,, are some common phrases of Nayaki Kanhara.

Aroh: ni Sa Re ga ma Pa, ga ma Pa ni Pa, Sa

Avaroh : Sa Pa ni ma Pa , ga ma Re Sa

Pakkad:  Re ni Sa.. Re ga... ma Re Sa Re, Re Pa, ma Pa ni Pa, ga ma Re Pa, ni Pa Sa... PaNiSaRe..niSa, Pa ni ma Pa ga ma Re Sa Re...

Bandish: Chota Chyal - Teen Taal 

St. Ja Ja Re Ja Kagawa, Mora Sandeshwa leja ....ll

Ant. Tumko Pukaru Nis Din Dhyawu , Aaj Piharawa Aa Ja... ll

Badha Khyal

 St. Kaise Samajhau Jiya Ko Aab Mori ll

Ant. Nis Din Maika Juga Sam Bitat,

Nahi Katat Din Raina Sakhi Re... ll (Bada khyal is a bandish of Pt. Narayan Laxman Gune) 


Note: The notes Sa represent Shadaj, Re – Suddh Rishavga – Komal Gandharma- Suddh MadhyamPa- Pancham, dha – Komal Dhaivat, Dha- Suddh Dhaivat,  ni- Komal Nishad, Ni- Suddh Nishad - 

@ copyright 



Transcendent Melodies: Nat Sankirtan and the Spiritual Voyage of the Meitei in Manipur

A form of singing known as Nat Sankirtan was brought to the Meitei of Manipur, a small state in North East India. Maipur has a lengthy history as a princely state under the authority of numerous monarchs. The great masters and scholars of that time founded the composition of the Padavali on the traditional Raga-Ragini of classical music tradition as well as on the Bhagawata and other important Vaishnavite texts. Modern study has found numerous regional undertones in the specific Raga and Ragini's architecture. The recital of Nat Sankirtan, which the Meiteis claim as their own, is unquestionably a sort of communal prayer, or Mahayajna as they call it. It is intensely ritualized and lasts for nearly five hours. The dances and rhythms closely resemble Vaishnavite beliefs. A Sangeet in the truest meaning of the word, Nat Sankirtan is a synthesis of music, dance, and tala. Additionally, it is a poem rendered visible, or Drishya Kavya. Nat Sankirtan plays a significant role in Meitei society's daily existence. The reason for this is that as people age and approach mortality, they listen to Hari-naam to atone for all the wrongdoings of the past and allow them to pass away peacefully.Following death, the deceased would be taken by family members for final rituals. Raga will be the first note of the Nat Sankirtan during the shraddha ritual. Pinddaan cannot be offered prior to the beginning of the prayers and the invocation of the deity. The spouse or son of the deceased individual will take a bath and put on clean clothes after offering the Pindadan. When Raga Vijay is being performed towards the conclusion of the Sankirtan, he will then arrive and pay his respects. The guardian (main vocalist) of the Mandap sends the deceased spirit to Baikunthdham, a paradise, to conclude the Shraddha ceremony. Naam Sankirtan is crucial in the event of a demise within a home. The process will begin with Naam Sankirtan during a ten-day period of sorrow, or Dashahan, and continue with other activities such as comprehension of Srimad Bhagavad Geeta.Once the Sankirtan has started, the Gira Thangba, the bereaved person, will offer Pindadan. Asti Sanchay, the ceremony for removing the ashes from the grave, involves the singing of Sankirtan. In this way, Meitei Nat Sankirtan Mahayajna has long since established itself as a necessary occasion in people's lives. Nat Sankirtan is, in a nutshell, the highest form of karma in Meitei culture. This essay makes an effort to comprehend Nat Sankirtan's significant contribution to Manipuri culture.


The Meitei community of Manipur, an Indian state in the northeast, engages in Nat Sankirtan as a customary religious ritual. It is a distinctive style of devotional music that tells the narrative of Lord Krishna's life and teachings through singing, dance, and storytelling. We will examine the background, significance, and cultural setting of Nat Sankirtan of Meitei in this study paper. The Vaishnava saint Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu introduced Nat Sankirtan to the Meitei people in the 18th century, which is when Nat Sankirtan's origins can be found. It soon became well-liked among the Meitei people and was a crucial component of their religious and cultural identity. With the addition of new instruments like the harmonium, dholak, and mridanga, Nat Sankirtan developed into a complex art form over time. Nat Sankirtan is a vital component of Meitei culture and heritage and is done today in a variety of ways, including Raslila, Sankirtan, and Kirtan.

For devotees of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Nat Sankirtan is a form of worship. It is regarded as a Mahayajna (complete sacrifice). The aesthetics and philosophy of Srimad Bhagawata are the foundations of Vaishnava architecture. The Srimad Bhagavata claims that the only honour in the Kaliyug is Hari Sankirtan (chanting the Lord's name), and that via Sankirtan, a person can achieve their goals and achieve moksha. Through dhyan in the Satyayuga, yajnas in the Tretayuga, pooja in the Dwaparyuga, and Hari Sankirtan in the Kaliyuga, one can achieve mukti. To achieve salvation in the Kali Yuga, the aforementioned dhyan, puja, yajana, etc. are all combined or fused into the shape of Hari Sankirtan. As a means of liberating the mortal and assisting him in obtaining moksha, Sri Chaitanya or Lord Gouranga gave a discourse on the importance and significance of Sankirtan.

Nimai Sannyas          

Nimai Sainyas is one of the prominent sankirtan sung in Shraddha ceremony. Performers are using their costumes with white clothes like Feijom (Dhoti), Kokyet (Turban), Lengyan (Sawl) without shirts. The bit of 4/4 and 3/4 is used in the composition and they have their particular name. Some names of Taal used in this Sankirtan are- 1. Teental (with 7 matras) 2. Tanchap (with 8 matras) 3. Menkup(with 6 matras) 4. Chari Taal(with 14 matras) 5. Rajmel (16 matras) etc.  Manggang instrument is used only on the first day of the death and during Dasha Hon period or Ashthi Sanchay sankirtan. music is used to perform.musical instrument Moibung (wind instrument), Meitei Pung (Manipur Percussion Instrument), Kartal, Jhal is used .The honor of the family, Brahman, Arangpham, Shaman and performers are interconnected to each other for celebrating the ceremony. The lyrics of the Naimai Sannyas is too long and it is of minimum three hrs performance in Shraddha ceremony. The lyrics of the Nimai Sainyas is majorly taken from the Nimai Chitrakatha and some other books of Nimai Sannyas. And it conveys the social message that Nimai is leaving the physical world and the asking to take care of mom on behalf of his absence. Few verses of the lyrics of Nimai Sannyas is mentioned below in Manipuri dialect and also the English translation of the lyrics sung during the Shraddha ceremony. 


In Manipuri Language


Leihouroko Bishnupriya

Eidi Chatlage Sainyas Fanglage

Leihouroko Bishnupriya…


Mapok Asima Nangbu Hundoklamledo

Nang Warouganu

Leihouroko Bishnupriya


Emagi Pukning Nungshihanganu

Luna Touko Emabu

Eidi chatle Pran Priye

Eidi Chatle Eidi Chatle

Leihouroko Bishnupriya


Ei saktuna Nangna

Emagi Seba Touro Prem Priye

Ei Saktuna


Nungaiba saruk Fangjaraktrabi

Eibu Pokpi Emani

Eidi Chatle Prem Priye

Eid Chatle Chatle

Leihouroko Bishnupriye


English Translation


Goodbye Bishnupriya

I am leaving as as sanyasi

Goodbye Bishnupriya


For this life I am leaving you

Don't be distressed with me

Goodbye Bishnupriya


Don't make my mother melancholious

Do take good care of her

But I am leaving oh my sweetheart

Goodbye Bishnupriya


On my behalf sweetheart

Please serve my mom as your own


Happiness and joy was never her life

Who gave birth to me

I am leaving though my sweetheart

I am leaving

Goodbye Bishnupriya

Fig :1.1 Shradha Ceremony

Note: Full Paper is published as Book chapter (AERA) RM Research International Pte.Ltd, Singapore 2023, and can be access from ISBN 978-981-18-1725-2


Kumar Sargam, Monica Soibam, Dr. Vishweshwari Tiwari and Rashmita Saikia 


Awareness of Performers’ Rights Under Indian Copyright Act: A Case Study in the Academia

This paper is published in Sangeet Galaxy:



The Indian Copyright Act protects performers against the unlawful use of their performance. Thus, Performer rights are the rights available to a performer against people who are doing illegal usage of performance. These rights are highly vital in the present period, which is dominated by the use of technology. This research paper will go over the definition of a performer, international agreements on performers’ rights, the necessity of giving performers legal protection, the legal status of performers’ rights in India, and challenges in enforcing performers’ rights amidst the rise of OTT. This paper will critically evaluate all these concepts and will demonstrate that the present law is inadequate current origin of OTT platforms. In addition to this, the success of any law depends upon the extent to which the people are aware of their rights. For this, an empirical study will be conducted to find out the implications and awareness of the law among various performers in the academic sector.


The creators are bestowed with right of copyright by the Copyright Act, of 1957, which prevents unauthorized use of their intellectual property or creative works. The category of performers to whom right is given by the law are: producers of cinematograph films and sound recordings, as well as authors of literary, dramatic, musical, and creative works, who are granted this privilege by the law. The copyright protection offered to the works of original authors, musicians, designers, dramatists, architects, and producers of sound recordings, cinematograph films, and computer software fosters an environment that is conducive to creativity, tempting them to produce more work and inspiring others to do the same. In 1914, India passed its first copyright legislation, which was modeled after the English Copyright Act of 1911. Later on, this Act was replaced by a new law ‘The Copyright Act, 1957’. This Act was updated in 1994 and 2012 to reflect the most recent advancements in information technology as well as international standards for performers’ and copyrights. There was no provision for the protection of performers’ rights in the original 1957 Act. Only after the 1994 amendment were certain performance rights recognized, which were then supplemented by other performer rights granted in the 2012 amendment.

Performer and Performers rights

The Copyright Act defines “performer” as “any person who makes a performance,” which includes actors, singers, musicians, dancers, acrobats, jugglers, conjurers, snake charmers, lecturers, and other performers.  The proviso to the definition of performer states that, except for clause (b) of Section 38B, a person whose performance in a cinematograph film is casual or incidental in nature and, in the usual course of business, is not acknowledged anywhere including in the film’s credits, shall not be treated as a performer.

The Act also defines “Performance” as any live visual or auditory presentation given by one or more performers in regard to performer’s rights.[1] In the Act, various rights are recognized to performers in order to safeguard their interests under Chapter VIII,  sections 38, 38A, 38B, 39 and 39A. Thus,  rights given to performers by the Copyright Act, 1957 are called performers rights.

Find the full paper in  www.sangeetgalaxy.co.in.

For Citation: Sharma, Ajay and Kumar Sargam. 2024. “Awareness of Performers’ Rights Under Indian Copyright Act: A Case Study in the Academia” Sangeet Galaxy 13(1): 5-19. www.sangeetgalaxy.co.in.


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