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Aesthetics of Raga: Nayaki Kanhara


The beauty that can be experienced while performing/ listening to the raga of Indian classical music is much more associated with the emotions and appeal of the melody. It has no limit and depends on the spectators how he/she observes, experiences and feels the subject while watching or listening to the music. Rasa is a kind of realization and varies from person to person. "Sundarta Dekhne Walo ki Soch Evum Ankho mai Hoti hy" - The sensual transformation that delights and impregnates all aspects of life is a Rasa erupted while realizing the rendering of raga. In addition, the combination of the melody of the raga and mental well-being of the artist, a wave of imagination is created called the emotion of raga.  

            Raga itself is budded with its specific characteristics and the melodic structure that defines the affection and creation of the entire universe as Naad- Brahma (cosmic sound). In Indian classical music Rasa is not only considered as the melody structure but also is a philosophy of Naad, a manifestation of the melody with proper grammatical sequencing of Shruti (micro notes) and Swar (notes) as described in the Veda. The feeling of Rasa while listening to the raga as a listener may have different emotions than the artist who is performing the same. The basic and fundamental thing to realize the aesthetic, beauty, appeal and emotion of raga is to be obliterated from personal ego, imbibe and absorb the melody without any judgment.

The combination of Swar and Shruti is varied in different raga even of similar nature or similar ascent and descent while the aesthetic behind these combinations germinated the frequency of emotions in different aspects. The Nature of Madhyamad Sarang is completely dissimilar and variant than Megh even the notes and scale of the both ragas are of same scale aand structure. Puriya, Marwa and Sohani also have different emotions even sharing the same scale, Bhupali and DeskarJaldhar-Kedar- Durga, Darbari Kahnara- Adana and so many ragas in Hindustani music having same Swar combination, similar scale and same Aroh (ascend) and Avaroh (descend) but have different nature, variant aesthetics and emotions due to the Ragang and the interconnection of notes used in particular raga. Raga-Rasa is thus the term having a simple meaning of realization of the raga. Is it not the matter of analysis or it is not the matter of comparison what the structure of raga is? what is the Swar combination? or what is the Thaat(group), Jati(category), Gayan Samey(timing),Vadi(main notes), Samvadi(corresponding note), but it is only the matter of realization, the feeing and visualization of the raga at any stage as a performer or the audience. 

In Hindustani classical music, the legendary musicologist and the disciple of V N BhatkhandePt. Narayan Moreshwar Khare has discovered the Ragang - a distinct characteristic of the raga commonly used in various categories of the raga. As part of raga Vargikaran (division), he has found 30 distinct Ragang in Hindustani Music which is widely accepted in the late 20th century. Among these thirty Ragang, Malhar and Kahara are the most prominent Ragang and have few similar conjunctions that create the transition between the raga where as Sarangaang is completely different and represent the joyfulness in the raga. It is realized that the interrelation between the raga and Rasa in Hindustani classical music plays a great role to appeal the emotions and establish the melody even if the structure of the notes is the same but erect the different Rasa. Common phrases of Malhar and Kanhara are ga ma Re Sa but the transition and the supporting notes, Meed, Kaan which plays a great role in framing the melody that makes the emotional appeal different even the same phrase of notes are sung together. Naykai Kanhar is one the best example where Kanhara meets Malhar, the same notes Sa Re ga ma in Aroh goes with Kanharang, and Pa mga ma Re Sa comes with Malharang. This phase (ga ma Re Sa) of Nayaki is sung/played on the basis of Malharang even the same phrase is a part of Avaroh which also represent the Kanharan but not used in Nayaki and it is strictly forbidden to use Kanharaang in Avaroh while singing ga ma Re Sa. In the second half scale of the Raga, combination of Sarang and Malhar is blended to form a soothing melody. Kanharabasically have the characteristics of boldness, seriousness and stability on the melody whereas Malhar also have the similar nature but sometimes the romance, fear altogether reflects the maturity and stability in melody. Sarang is a reflection of joyfulness, romance and the adornment of the Nayak-Nayika must dominantly represent the emotions and aesthetics of love and affection (Shringar Rasa).


Objectives of the Study:

The basic objective of the study of the raga with relation to emotions and emotional appeal is to identify the nuances and fineness of the raga as well as its melodic structure and the notes combination of three Ang are being used in the same raga. For this research, five ragas are taken where Malhar-KanharaMalhar -Sarang or Kahnara-Sarang are used i.e Raga Nayaki Kanhara, Suha, Saguhari, Sahana, and DevsakhNayaki Kanhara is the prime raga were major experiment is done because the melody of the Nayaki Kanhara is a combination of three Ragang (Kanhara, Malhar and Sarang). For the understanding of the aesthetics and blending of Ragang Samparkriti Raga SuhaSaghurahi, Sahana and Devsakh are taken because these ragas are created with either of these Ragang Malhar, Kahnara and Sarang. The objective of the study will be i) similarity and distinctness of the emotions and appeal in Malhar, Sarang and Kanhar Ang, ii) an impact of Malhar, Sarang and Kanhara Ang if used in same raga and its uses in terms of phrases and micro notes while creating a melody, iii) analysis of the transition of phrase of Malhar, Sarang and Kanhara in Nayaki Kanhara, how Gandhar- Nishad plays a role in conjoining the Ragang. To establish the above-mentioned objective qualitative methodology will be used to analyze the Swar combination of all five ragas along with the basic framework of Kanharaand Malhar Ang. Review of few Bandishes and musical rendering of Pt. Rajan Sajan, Ustad Rashid Khan, Pt. Bhimsen Josh. Pt, Jasraj, Ustad Aamir Khan and few other renowned vocalists will be carried during the qualitative analysis. Notes combination Re Re Sa ni Sa Re, ga ma Re Sa, Re Pa, ma Pa ni Pa Sa, Pa Ni Sa Re Sa will be examined with software Logic pro X to examine the notes and its frequency and try to identify the similarity of notes and its rendering by the artist, it connecting notes and distinctness in Gharana to Gharana style. Further, self-experience and live performance/demo will be recorded to understand and evaluate the emotions, appeal of both Ang in Raga Nayaki Kanhara.

Raga Nayaki Kanhara: 

Raga Nayaki Kanhara is a raga from the bunch of Kanhara-ang raga that falls under the Kafi Thaat.  Nayaki is one of the famous types of Kanhara supposed to be composed by Gopal Nayak in late 12th century which share a similar scale to Raga SuhaShahana and Devsakh and Sughurai. The most common and similar raga to Nayaki Kanhara is Suhawhich is also called as Samprakritik raga.

            The Raga Nayaki Kanhara is the complex raga with the combination of three RagangsDarbari in Purbang (first phase), Sarang in Uttrang (Second half) and the mixture of Malhar in the center of the scale.  Phrases from these three main ragas were webbed to create the unique melody of Raga Nayaki Kanhara Ni Sa Re Rga-- ma Re Sa or Re ni Sa Re ga... m Re Sa ni Sa Re.., phrases of Raga Darbari, Re....Re Pa ma mga ma Re, Se Re.. of Miya Malhar and ma Pa ni ma Pa, Pa Ni Sa of Sarang were adopted and fused in such a way to create a distinct melody of Nayaki. The notes combination of this raga is unique of its kind and need to take guidance from the expert- teacher before its recital. Special emphasis on Komal Gandhar is the major part of this raga. In Aroh, the Komal Gandhar is sung with the support of Suddh Rishav as similar as in Darbari but in Avaroh the same Komal Gandhar is sung according to Malhar-ang, a Kaan of Suddh Madhyam to Komal Gandhar to Suddh madhyam to Suddh Rishav is the ascending path of this Raga. 

Raga Nayaki Kanhara is one of the popular and prominent raga of Kanhara-ang of Hindustani classical music. The Vadi of the Raga is Madhyam and Sambadi is Shadaj and its singing time is midnight or the third phase of night. The Jati of the raga is Shaddav- Shadav where Dhaivat is completely abandoned in Aroh and Avaroh. Both forms of Nishadare used in raga but the position of Suddh Nishad is restricted only in Aroh and used as per Sarangang ( Pa Ni Sa Re, Pa ni Pa Ni Sa Re,  Re ni Sa...Pa ni Pa ). Komal Nishad is used freely in both Aroh and Avaroh but in Vakra Swaroop(crooked position) i.e  Pa ni Pa Sa , Ni Sa Re Sa ni Pa, ma Pa ni Pa.. Sa .. Crooked and wry position in raga is the common transition where three Ragang are blended to make Nayaki Kanhara and created a unique melody that the parental Raga where those phrases are taken form.  Re ni Sa Re,  ga ma Re Sa Re.., Re Pa , ga ma Re Sa .. ga ma Pa ni Pa , ni Pa ma Pa ga ma Re , Pa ,, ni Pa ma Pa ni Pa Sa.., Pa Ni Sa Re Sa ,, are some common phrases of Nayaki Kanhara.

Aroh: ni Sa Re ga ma Pa, ga ma Pa ni Pa, Sa

Avaroh : Sa Pa ni ma Pa , ga ma Re Sa

Pakkad:  Re ni Sa.. Re ga... ma Re Sa Re, Re Pa, ma Pa ni Pa, ga ma Re Pa, ni Pa Sa... PaNiSaRe..niSa, Pa ni ma Pa ga ma Re Sa Re...

Bandish: Chota Chyal - Teen Taal 

St. Ja Ja Re Ja Kagawa, Mora Sandeshwa leja ....ll

Ant. Tumko Pukaru Nis Din Dhyawu , Aaj Piharawa Aa Ja... ll

Badha Khyal

 St. Kaise Samajhau Jiya Ko Aab Mori ll

Ant. Nis Din Maika Juga Sam Bitat,

Nahi Katat Din Raina Sakhi Re... ll (Bada khyal is a bandish of Pt. Narayan Laxman Gune) 


Note: The notes Sa represent Shadaj, Re – Suddh Rishavga – Komal Gandharma- Suddh MadhyamPa- Pancham, dha – Komal Dhaivat, Dha- Suddh Dhaivat,  ni- Komal Nishad, Ni- Suddh Nishad - 

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Transcendent Melodies: Nat Sankirtan and the Spiritual Voyage of the Meitei in Manipur

A form of singing known as Nat Sankirtan was brought to the Meitei of Manipur, a small state in North East India. Maipur has a lengthy history as a princely state under the authority of numerous monarchs. The great masters and scholars of that time founded the composition of the Padavali on the traditional Raga-Ragini of classical music tradition as well as on the Bhagawata and other important Vaishnavite texts. Modern study has found numerous regional undertones in the specific Raga and Ragini's architecture. The recital of Nat Sankirtan, which the Meiteis claim as their own, is unquestionably a sort of communal prayer, or Mahayajna as they call it. It is intensely ritualized and lasts for nearly five hours. The dances and rhythms closely resemble Vaishnavite beliefs. A Sangeet in the truest meaning of the word, Nat Sankirtan is a synthesis of music, dance, and tala. Additionally, it is a poem rendered visible, or Drishya Kavya. Nat Sankirtan plays a significant role in Meitei society's daily existence. The reason for this is that as people age and approach mortality, they listen to Hari-naam to atone for all the wrongdoings of the past and allow them to pass away peacefully.Following death, the deceased would be taken by family members for final rituals. Raga will be the first note of the Nat Sankirtan during the shraddha ritual. Pinddaan cannot be offered prior to the beginning of the prayers and the invocation of the deity. The spouse or son of the deceased individual will take a bath and put on clean clothes after offering the Pindadan. When Raga Vijay is being performed towards the conclusion of the Sankirtan, he will then arrive and pay his respects. The guardian (main vocalist) of the Mandap sends the deceased spirit to Baikunthdham, a paradise, to conclude the Shraddha ceremony. Naam Sankirtan is crucial in the event of a demise within a home. The process will begin with Naam Sankirtan during a ten-day period of sorrow, or Dashahan, and continue with other activities such as comprehension of Srimad Bhagavad Geeta.Once the Sankirtan has started, the Gira Thangba, the bereaved person, will offer Pindadan. Asti Sanchay, the ceremony for removing the ashes from the grave, involves the singing of Sankirtan. In this way, Meitei Nat Sankirtan Mahayajna has long since established itself as a necessary occasion in people's lives. Nat Sankirtan is, in a nutshell, the highest form of karma in Meitei culture. This essay makes an effort to comprehend Nat Sankirtan's significant contribution to Manipuri culture.


The Meitei community of Manipur, an Indian state in the northeast, engages in Nat Sankirtan as a customary religious ritual. It is a distinctive style of devotional music that tells the narrative of Lord Krishna's life and teachings through singing, dance, and storytelling. We will examine the background, significance, and cultural setting of Nat Sankirtan of Meitei in this study paper. The Vaishnava saint Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu introduced Nat Sankirtan to the Meitei people in the 18th century, which is when Nat Sankirtan's origins can be found. It soon became well-liked among the Meitei people and was a crucial component of their religious and cultural identity. With the addition of new instruments like the harmonium, dholak, and mridanga, Nat Sankirtan developed into a complex art form over time. Nat Sankirtan is a vital component of Meitei culture and heritage and is done today in a variety of ways, including Raslila, Sankirtan, and Kirtan.

For devotees of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Nat Sankirtan is a form of worship. It is regarded as a Mahayajna (complete sacrifice). The aesthetics and philosophy of Srimad Bhagawata are the foundations of Vaishnava architecture. The Srimad Bhagavata claims that the only honour in the Kaliyug is Hari Sankirtan (chanting the Lord's name), and that via Sankirtan, a person can achieve their goals and achieve moksha. Through dhyan in the Satyayuga, yajnas in the Tretayuga, pooja in the Dwaparyuga, and Hari Sankirtan in the Kaliyuga, one can achieve mukti. To achieve salvation in the Kali Yuga, the aforementioned dhyan, puja, yajana, etc. are all combined or fused into the shape of Hari Sankirtan. As a means of liberating the mortal and assisting him in obtaining moksha, Sri Chaitanya or Lord Gouranga gave a discourse on the importance and significance of Sankirtan.

Nimai Sannyas          

Nimai Sainyas is one of the prominent sankirtan sung in Shraddha ceremony. Performers are using their costumes with white clothes like Feijom (Dhoti), Kokyet (Turban), Lengyan (Sawl) without shirts. The bit of 4/4 and 3/4 is used in the composition and they have their particular name. Some names of Taal used in this Sankirtan are- 1. Teental (with 7 matras) 2. Tanchap (with 8 matras) 3. Menkup(with 6 matras) 4. Chari Taal(with 14 matras) 5. Rajmel (16 matras) etc.  Manggang instrument is used only on the first day of the death and during Dasha Hon period or Ashthi Sanchay sankirtan. music is used to perform.musical instrument Moibung (wind instrument), Meitei Pung (Manipur Percussion Instrument), Kartal, Jhal is used .The honor of the family, Brahman, Arangpham, Shaman and performers are interconnected to each other for celebrating the ceremony. The lyrics of the Naimai Sannyas is too long and it is of minimum three hrs performance in Shraddha ceremony. The lyrics of the Nimai Sainyas is majorly taken from the Nimai Chitrakatha and some other books of Nimai Sannyas. And it conveys the social message that Nimai is leaving the physical world and the asking to take care of mom on behalf of his absence. Few verses of the lyrics of Nimai Sannyas is mentioned below in Manipuri dialect and also the English translation of the lyrics sung during the Shraddha ceremony. 


In Manipuri Language


Leihouroko Bishnupriya

Eidi Chatlage Sainyas Fanglage

Leihouroko Bishnupriya…


Mapok Asima Nangbu Hundoklamledo

Nang Warouganu

Leihouroko Bishnupriya


Emagi Pukning Nungshihanganu

Luna Touko Emabu

Eidi chatle Pran Priye

Eidi Chatle Eidi Chatle

Leihouroko Bishnupriya


Ei saktuna Nangna

Emagi Seba Touro Prem Priye

Ei Saktuna


Nungaiba saruk Fangjaraktrabi

Eibu Pokpi Emani

Eidi Chatle Prem Priye

Eid Chatle Chatle

Leihouroko Bishnupriye


English Translation


Goodbye Bishnupriya

I am leaving as as sanyasi

Goodbye Bishnupriya


For this life I am leaving you

Don't be distressed with me

Goodbye Bishnupriya


Don't make my mother melancholious

Do take good care of her

But I am leaving oh my sweetheart

Goodbye Bishnupriya


On my behalf sweetheart

Please serve my mom as your own


Happiness and joy was never her life

Who gave birth to me

I am leaving though my sweetheart

I am leaving

Goodbye Bishnupriya

Fig :1.1 Shradha Ceremony

Note: Full Paper is published as Book chapter (AERA) RM Research International Pte.Ltd, Singapore 2023, and can be access from ISBN 978-981-18-1725-2


Kumar Sargam, Monica Soibam, Dr. Vishweshwari Tiwari and Rashmita Saikia 


Awareness of Performers’ Rights Under Indian Copyright Act: A Case Study in the Academia

This paper is published in Sangeet Galaxy:



The Indian Copyright Act protects performers against the unlawful use of their performance. Thus, Performer rights are the rights available to a performer against people who are doing illegal usage of performance. These rights are highly vital in the present period, which is dominated by the use of technology. This research paper will go over the definition of a performer, international agreements on performers’ rights, the necessity of giving performers legal protection, the legal status of performers’ rights in India, and challenges in enforcing performers’ rights amidst the rise of OTT. This paper will critically evaluate all these concepts and will demonstrate that the present law is inadequate current origin of OTT platforms. In addition to this, the success of any law depends upon the extent to which the people are aware of their rights. For this, an empirical study will be conducted to find out the implications and awareness of the law among various performers in the academic sector.


The creators are bestowed with right of copyright by the Copyright Act, of 1957, which prevents unauthorized use of their intellectual property or creative works. The category of performers to whom right is given by the law are: producers of cinematograph films and sound recordings, as well as authors of literary, dramatic, musical, and creative works, who are granted this privilege by the law. The copyright protection offered to the works of original authors, musicians, designers, dramatists, architects, and producers of sound recordings, cinematograph films, and computer software fosters an environment that is conducive to creativity, tempting them to produce more work and inspiring others to do the same. In 1914, India passed its first copyright legislation, which was modeled after the English Copyright Act of 1911. Later on, this Act was replaced by a new law ‘The Copyright Act, 1957’. This Act was updated in 1994 and 2012 to reflect the most recent advancements in information technology as well as international standards for performers’ and copyrights. There was no provision for the protection of performers’ rights in the original 1957 Act. Only after the 1994 amendment were certain performance rights recognized, which were then supplemented by other performer rights granted in the 2012 amendment.

Performer and Performers rights

The Copyright Act defines “performer” as “any person who makes a performance,” which includes actors, singers, musicians, dancers, acrobats, jugglers, conjurers, snake charmers, lecturers, and other performers.  The proviso to the definition of performer states that, except for clause (b) of Section 38B, a person whose performance in a cinematograph film is casual or incidental in nature and, in the usual course of business, is not acknowledged anywhere including in the film’s credits, shall not be treated as a performer.

The Act also defines “Performance” as any live visual or auditory presentation given by one or more performers in regard to performer’s rights.[1] In the Act, various rights are recognized to performers in order to safeguard their interests under Chapter VIII,  sections 38, 38A, 38B, 39 and 39A. Thus,  rights given to performers by the Copyright Act, 1957 are called performers rights.

Find the full paper in  www.sangeetgalaxy.co.in.

For Citation: Sharma, Ajay and Kumar Sargam. 2024. “Awareness of Performers’ Rights Under Indian Copyright Act: A Case Study in the Academia” Sangeet Galaxy 13(1): 5-19. www.sangeetgalaxy.co.in.


Reeyaz Techinque of Banaras Gharana

The Gharana system in Indian Classical Music signify a unique style of singing and articulation of vocal technique that drives towards individual and solitary in reeyaz, performance and teaching-learning process of Raga. Among the large community of Gharana of Hindustani Music, Banaras Gharana is one of the prominent Gharana that has established in all four forms of classical music. 

Banaras Gharna is widely recognised as gharana of Tabla, a legacy of Pt. Ram Sahaya where maestro like Pt. Bhairav Sahahi, Pt.Kanthe Maharaj, Pt. Gudai Maharaj, Pt Anokhelal,  Pt. Kishan Mahartaj, Pt. Sharda Shahaye, Pt. Lachhu maharaj, Pt. Kumar Bose were born and established as  international framed artist. 

 In Kathak dance too, Banaras Gharana is one among the four style, a legacy of Janki Prasad , where numerous well established were flourished. Sitara Devi, Shovna Narayan, Aashiq Hussain Khan, Tara Choudhary etc. were notable artist. Pt. Birju maharaj also represent the legacy of Banaras Gharna. 

In Dhrupad and Khyal, the heritage of Banaras gharana was supposed to established since from the ancient time because Kashi- Banaras is a religious heritage and a place for Moksha( self- realisation, freedom from sin & ignorance). Thus the connection of classical music and religious- spiritual aspect can be traces in Banaras since from the Vedic period.  Karma - Moksha are the part of life and it is believed that once in a life a Hindu need to reach Kashi, bath Ganaga and worship Baba Vishwanath that his/her life will get rid of all the sin and proceed towards the heaven.  

With help of old manuscript of  Nepal Darbar found in Archaeological department, Kathmandu, Manuscripts of Calcutta Darbar, available in Bang Sahitya Parishad, Kolkata, and other reference like Stone Inscription, Books, 

Sehanai Maestro Ustad Bismillah Khan and his legacy,  

will update soon...

Happy New Year 2024.... 

Thanking for Reading my Blog   


Why Practical Research in Music ?

Is research means only rediscovering theory? 

Research in Indian music is not an old topic, however PhD was part of the curriculum in few universities in India since 1877 and first awarded in 1920,  university grand commission allowed university to start the doctored programme in music in 1965. A general definition in music research describes about the new finding and re discovering the elements that have been discovered earlier or a defining the new pathway that drives to establish a fundament principle on music theory. The research either can be theoretical or practical depends on the nature of the study. 

Indian Music tradition has a long history and diverse cultural framework which need to study very minutely and carefully that cultural heritage of music tradition can be lighted through research. But it is unfortunate that practical aspect of Indian music is not a part of academic research in any university. D.Mus was introduced in 60s of 20th century but the nomenclature was withdraw and discontinued because of UGC guidelines in early 2000s. At present, theoretical research in music is only the part of academic research in India which is know by PhD in music. 

PhD in Music, few projects of ministry of culture and Sangeet Natak Akademi, ICCR, NCERT and UGC major/minor projects are part of few research in music that exits in India. Except PhD in music, all other project based research are not a intensified and focused research that make difference or some kind of impact in music legacy. The PhD research is more or less confined with theory-history and other theoretical perspective of Indian Music. It has been said by scholars that more than ninety-five percentage of academic research in music is only the documentation and rewrite of material already available in any of the sources like books, previous research or documentation. It can be said that academic research in music is a just a blended form of many work ensemble in one. Only the few intensive work has been done by great scholars that can be said as research in music rest of all is only collection of material from different books, thesis, dissertation and other secondary sources.  

In India, research in music is just an academic work, so no proper training, fundamental practices and proper curriculum is designed for the independent researcher. Lack of proper funding, no substantial support to the artist and traditional researcher, and no attention towards practical works, raga/ tala performance/ finding the nuances of the musical elements lead to deteriorate the huge tradition of Raga Sangeet. There is no interconnection between the practitioner artists and academicians that can lead to innovative work in finding the basic elements of swar, shruti and nuances of Raga development. It is a misconception that research only can be in theoretical aspect only. It is of-course not that no theoretical research can make significant changes in music history but practical research,  research on practical aspect of Raga, Khyal, Dhrupad, Dhamra, Sadara, Trivat, Chaturang, Tarana, Bhajan, Dadra, Thumri, Varnam, Padam, Ragam-Tanam-Pallavi, Kirti, Kirtanam,  and all other existing or vanished style of classical music should a part of research to establish these classic style of Indian origin. If i say, in medicine, business, science & technology practical research  practices are equal important as principles so why not in music ? 

Prabandh, Jati Gayan, Margi- Desi Sangeet, Saam, and all other ancient tradition of Indian music are only know by the name but nobody knows the actual structure and singing of these forms so research, transcription and intensified worked on practical aspect of musical forms can rediscover the heritage of Indian classical music. At present non of the universities, and government bodies  are working on the practical aspect of research which is quite disappointing in the field of Indian Music. The Depth and quality of classical music is being deteriorated day by day and so many musical form are on the process of  vanishing so  all of the music fraternity, concern government agencies, academic institutions and academician need to think twice-thrice that practical work on Indian Music can rediscover and preserved for further generation. 


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