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Rasa Siddhant- Bhuktivad of Bhat Nayak

  Bhuktivad of Bhat Nayak



    The Rasa-Shurta(Principal of Indian Aesthetics-Vibhavaanubhavyavicharisanyogadrasnispatti-) described in the sixth chapter of Natyashashtra was well interoperated by another critic- Bhat Nayak. His analysis and criticism is called as Bhuktivad where the Rasa is germinated with the combination of (Sanyog means Bhojya-Bhojak Bhav) and Nispatti means Bhukti (Bhog Karna). Bhat Nayak explained that the Sanyog- a connection of Vibhav-Anubhav and Vyavichari Bhav is a kind of Bhojya- eatable product and Bhojak- Dawat-a place where people eats and Nispatti means  where emotion is produced with combination of Vibhav-Anubhav and Vyavichari Bhav  is like the Rasmalai- Dukan and a person to eat the Rasmalai Sweets. As per the statement of Bhat Nayak the functioning of the of the literature is supposed to be the origin of emotions. He further explains that Rasa in Music and Drama or in Poetry is neither directly realised nor produced or can be suggested to reproduce.

    Kavya - means literature is vocable and its has its three quality- Abhidha(meaning)- Bhavna(sensation) and Bhog(utility). a completed meaning of the literature is understood  with all three quality. Abhidha is the meaning by means of which we understand the meaning of the word and Bhavna is the emotions inside the word  and Bhog is a kind of intake of that particular word with a power of denotation. Lets talk with an example- take a work Dog(Kutta), its it has a meaning and sensation but it never produce a emotion of anger until an unless it comes to you as Bhog. If somebody tell you - see what a preet dog roaming around .. sensitise different feeling and what kind of dog you are? sensitive the different meaning, so the impact of Bhog(utility) of the words create different meaning if the literature is same. 

    If it is believe that Rasa is apprehended then, it is only possible as audience to understand the relationship of the Nayak-Nayaka the internal-relationship of Bhojya-Bhojak Bhav. It means if spectator believe that the feeling of emotions(Rasa) is germinated in his soul that means the Bhojya-Bhojak Bhav of Nayak Nayaki simplifies to Bhavato and the emotion of love generalised to feel audience himself in that love with his partner like the hero-heroins of the drama. In music too, same kindly of feeling can be shared by meaning of literature/ lyrics of the Bandish. An artist reciting the Bandish of Radha- Krishna may feel the audience as the resemblance of his own love with his/her beloved one. A spectator who witness a performance just to derive a kind of innocent delight would not consider to make himself unhappy and miserable by witnessing a bad situation, but rasa would certainly involved in any situation. As per the Bhat Nayak there are some stimulants which is only possible at the divine level due to this reason the Bhavakto- Bhog of the Rasa with reference to the spectator himself is impossible however partial feeling of Rasa can be imagined to the audience. 

    The Criticism of Bhat Nayak is according to the Sankhya-Shastra and called as Sankhyamatanuyayi- a follower of Sankhymat. As per the Sankhyamat Love- Happiness-Misery and Sorrow are the character of mind not the soul, but human can feel the sensation of these Panch-Vikar (Five diformation) similarly the pleasure love-affection, misery-sorrow-joy is not part of the spectator but can feel the sensation of these emotions which actually happing in the drama. As per the criticism of Bhat Nayak Rasa cannot be formally said to take the form of direct experiences so the audience is indifferent to the emotions of the Nayak-Nayaki, however the partial impact of that feeling can be observed in spectator. The concept of idealisation and and generalization is characterised by the absence flaws and the positive abundance of the merits and figure. Thus this criticism is called Bhuktivad. 

Demerits of Bhukivad 

    Feeling of the emotions is supposed to be in the spectator but not in directly propionate to the soul of Nayak-Nayaki and their level of emotion. He accepted that Rasa-nispatti can be feel by the audience but it is not their own emotions and drives from the main character. The relation of Bhavkato- Bhojakto is imagined here to generate emotions, and also there is a illusion of Bhavkato- Bhojakto. To who it represent, the epic character Radha- Krishna or the Nayak-Nayaki of the Play who are playing the role of Radha- Krishan or the audience who is watching the play. 



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