Raga Literature


          Bandish is the well-composed lyrical poetry and structure of melody framed with a grammatical sequence of Raga. It is the traditional name of the composition in Hindustani Classical music,  not similar to ordinary songs but has charming both in melody and rhythmic aspect. Usually a Bandish Consist of two stanzas,  Sthai, and Antara. In past centuries  Bandish was of 4 stanzas having Sthai, Antara, Sanchari, and Abhogi were in practice. It is still noticed in Dhrupad and Dhamar tradition having the same style of Bandish Structure of four verses. In Hindustani Classical Music, Bandish plays a great role to express the musical melody through literature. Most of the Bandish composed in Hindustani music is in the typical language of Avadh and Braj, a subline of the Hindi language. Bandishes are well composed with the lyrical beauty of literature with the variant flavor of Raga. The aesthetic of Raga, the Rasa theory, and its expression are well synchronized by the Vagyakar in forming the melody of the Bandish.


          Chhand literary means the series of words used to compose the poem or song with uniformity in each grammatical sequence. It means a grammatical sequence to compose poetry with proper verses and stanzas. In music too Chhand is of equal importance in Bandish, either of a song or of any other composition to articulate melody with a definite and regular pattern of accented and unaccented beats. Musical Chhand is the rhythm patterns based in a certain time cycle called Tala and its Matras and Layas within the cycle of certain pleasing thimble that composed music and the melody.


Chayalagna Raga:-

          The Term Chaya and Lagna are two different works combined to form a sing word Chayalagna.  here Chaya means the shadow or the influence of other ragas in a particular way and Lagna means to attach with or come with so the Chayalagna Raga means the secondary raga composed with the mixture of two Raga. Evidently, it is a mixture of two Raga to form a new Raga borrowing some character of the mother Raga or  Suddha Raga. In simple words, Chayalagna Raga is characterized as the Raga having the mixture of two Ragas to form a new melody Raga.  Puriya-Kalyan, in a Raga of Chayalagna Character having the both touch of Puriya and Kalyan. Hameer, Kedar, Shyam Kalyan, Goud Sarang, and many other Raga are popular in Hindustani Music of Chayalagna Characteristics.


Sankirna Raga:-

          Sankara means the mixture of various aromas and flavors that exactly creates a new melody.  Sankirna Raga means the Raga having the shadow of more than two Ragas either of Suddha or Chayalagna Characteristics. In Hindustani music, some Ragas are composed with a mixture of different melodic structures borrowed from a few Janya Raga. Sankirna Raga exactly means the raga having the shadow and mixture of three or more Raga.   Bilashkhani Todi is the combination of Todi, Komal Asawari, and Bhairavi. So, it is called Sankirna Raga has the character of three or more different raga to form a distinct melody. Raga Sindh-Bhairavi, Ahir Bhairav, Jayjaywanti, Pilu  Bhatiyar are a few examples of Sankirna Raga.


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