Understanding the Components of Tala



Sam/Sama literally means the co-join or come together of Tala. The musical composition comes together in the first beat of Tala in each rhythmic cycle of every Tala in Indian Music and Dance is called Sam. The Sama usually is the focused point where musical composition generally meets together with the first beet of Tala after each improvisation in every rhythmic cycle. Sama is like "Samata" which means equalize where both Tala and composition adjoin together to form the musical rotation. In Tabla, Pakhawaj or Mridangam Sam is, usually the first beat of every Tala. Generally, Sama is being shown with a bit louder sound than other beats by the percussionist and dancer or vocalist. The Sama is denoted with the "Andaz" or force expression in the first beat with or without the Tala. it is noticed that the Tala with its Theka gives an idea of how sound in a cycle, but there’s no way you know its tempo unless told the pattern of Laya has to be accomplished.


    Laya in Indian music means the systematic interval of time per beat. It can be defined as the movement of beats per second. The Tala shapes the metrical structure which occurs, in a cyclical harmony, Indian music is written and performed in a metrical system. The Tala is the metric form that takes place in a cyclical rhythm from the start to the end of any particular segment of song or dance, making it conceptually similar to meters in Western music. Here Laya, or the Tempo is counted as the speed of the beats or the distance of two beats counted in per second-meter frame. The interval of time is equal in all beats or there might be the systematic time format to structure a rhythmic cycle called Tala.

In music and dance, Laya (both rhythm and tempo) is always present. There are times when the rhythm is not easily apparent and is said to be hidden. This may happen either when the tempo is too slow to be discernible, or if there are interludes of silence in between. However, once the tempo increases, the rhythm becomes discernible. The Laya (tempo) of a musical composition is generally defined in relation to an average person’s heartbeat. A tempo roughly equal to the tempo of a heartbeat or beat per second is called Madhya Laya (middle tempo), half that speed means 2 seconds per beat is Vilambit Laya (slow tempo), double that speed means 2 beats per second is Drut Laya (fast tempo). Actually, Madhyalaya is the general and medium speed. Vilambit Laya means the slow speed is just half of Madhyalaya and Drut Laya means the fast speed, double the speed of Madhyalaya. 

In Indian Classical Music, We have various kinds of Laya and layakari. Apart from these Three forms Ati Vilimvit Laya 1/4 or 1/8 are usually in practice in Bada Khyal singing as per the specific Gharana. Laya of Dhrupad and Dhamar tradition is regarded as Vilimvit or Ati Vilimvit as per the Bani of Dhrupad Tradition.   Aad laya (Dedgun ki layakatri 3/2) , Kuaad Laya (Savagun Ki Laya 5/4), Kuaad ( Paunedo Gun ki Layakai 7/4 and Sometimes veterans use 3:4 or 4::3 Layakari as per their proficiency and practice. 


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