Rasa Siddhant of Abhinavgupt

                                                  Abhivyaktivad of Abhinavgupt 

    Vibhavaanubhavyavicharisanyogadrasnispattimeans the adjoining of Vibhav, Anubhav, and Vybhichari Bhav, the Rasa (Beauty/Aesthetic) is generated in the human mind and soul.  The Abhivyaktvad of Abhinavgupt specifically coated that Sanyog means the co-relationship word- expression, light- illuminator or can be said as the relation of Vyangya- Vyanjak or Prkashya-Prakashak Bhav. Acharya Abhinavgupt also stated that Nispatti mean the expression of the aesthetics in his epic book Abhinav Bharti. The consideration and opinion of Acharya Abhinavgupt is followed by the renowned rhetoric(Alankar-Shastra) phoneticism(Dhwanivad) Acharya Anandvardan so the expressionism of Abhinavgupt is also called as the Figurative principle (Aalankarikmat). 

    The Theory of Expressionism- Abhivyaktivad is basically focus on the connection of Vibhav and all to create an amazing act in soul called as Euphemism (Vyanjana). Though this supernatural phenomenon, an emerging of desire in spectator soul express the feeling of Rasa. Abhuinavgupt said the desire are individual and already in each human soul when connected with the character the innermost desire gets bubbling and the spectator feel the emotions of his/her own and he/she himself/ herself get connected to the artist and feel that he/she himself/herself are in the drama, playing the role as an individual character, thats why when we watch a movie our subconscious mind choose one character of that movie. If we supposed to the hero than each and every activity of hero make us feel good. when some Villain attack the hero we feel angry, and when hero win the fight we too feel like the satisfaction and enjoy the victory. Each and every character connected with hero makes us same feeling like they all are connected with myself. If somebody hurt hero then we too feel sad, if hero fall in love then we feel romantic so these all activity and desire of craving is defined as generalisation of mind and soul with hero or the character of drama.  

    The similar thing is happens in music and dance too. When spectator watch the dance performance or music performance, the eternal desire when blend with the melody and movement of the dancer or musician then the germination of emotions is generated unconsciously. The spectator never thought should i feel happy or should i cry, it happens unknowingly and the level of emotions  varies form person to person. The Artis playing Sitar in stage may feel different when he playing is playing a Thumri and the audience in front of him may feel the different emotions while listening the same melody. A vocalist sing the  Bandish"Piya nahi aaye " might thinking the love-affection between Radha Krishna but a listener may feel his own experience of love in the same lyrics. In his explanation he also criticise the theory of Bhatt Nayak that Bhavna (sentiments) and Bhog (Perception ) is not only the the characters to capitalised the feeling of others but it is a kindly of Euphemism that reside in the soul of the spectator that unconsciously germinate the emotions in real meaning and that emotions is not indirect or imagination but a cognizable by your own sense. He further added each human have numerous kind of desire hidden inside the soul but when encounter with Bhav-Vibhav and Sanchari Bhav it suddenly yield in the mind and some changes can be observed in physical and mental level of the person in the form of Anger, Sorrow, Happiness, Satire or many more, similarly as the fragrance of clay yield when rain water falls on it.

    Ahinavgupt further defines the theory of expression with seven component of Sadhak Tatwa (Seeker Path) and Seven Badhak-Tatwa (Hindrance Path). These Component are as follows:-

Sadhak Tatwa:-
  1. Rasikatwa
  2. Sahridya
  3. Pratibha
  4. Vasna - Sanskar
  5. Bhawna-Charwana 
  6. Shareerik evum Manasik Yogeta -शारीरिक  एवं मानसिक योग्यता
  7. Tadtymy-तादात्म्य
Badhak Tatva:-
  1. Pratipattavyogyata
  2. Ashryagat evum Vishyagat Seemaye- samey k Adhar par 
  3. Ashryagat evum Vishyagat Seemaye- Sthan k Adhar par 
  4. Nij Sukh-Dukhadi Vivashi Bhav
  5. Pratityupayavaikalyat-sphutatwa Bhav
  6. Apradhanta
  7. Sanshay Yog
Note: These seven Sadhaktwa and Badhaktwa will be explained in another article.



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