Swar: An Abstract frequency to understand the Music



    Among the infinitive varieties of sound, swar literally means a sound used for musical purposed having the character of stability in term of perfect pitch and unfluctuating frequency. It can be also define as the sound of having vibrational quality of pleasing nature and soothe the mind and soul of both creator and listener without depending on any other factor is called Swar. The definition of Swar may varies in different perception in Indian Classical Music. The Seven Major Musical tone are sometimes called Swar followed by five more sharper/flatter sub notes. Some intellectuals defines that each heard notes can be said as Swar however the characteristics might have different in implementing in musical scale.

It should be remember that the notes in Indian Classical are not fixed perhaps you fixed the root anywhere called Shadaj. It is not particularly bounded in any frequency so Shadaj can be of 246 Hz frequency if tuned in western note B. The exact frequency of C Sharp is tuned in 277.18 Hz. But the question arise that each Sa can be the 240Hz note? Obviously No. Each Individual notes in Hindustani Classical Music can be assumed as Sa, so how can a Sa be of 240 Hz. To form a particular scale in Indian Classical Music it be the establishment of root note and it is spell as per the comfort of the particular artist. Generally female used to setup sa a bit lower pitch then male because the treble of female vocal is sharper then male so it is set in such a way that they could reach all three octave without any difficulties in singing a song. The Root note of male pitch usually start near about C Sharp or the First Black (Middle Octave) female pitch is from the Fourth Black (Lower Octave) notes of Harmonium.  In pas centuries the Tanpura was tuned as per the comfort zone of the singer. There were no perfect technique to fix the notes so singers usually established Sa and then they used to construct a scale as per the Raga and its notes combination.

          The universal acceptance of the Swar or notes means the musical notes farmed in a musical scale to create a melody or harmony of music. The Swar in Indian Classical Music have two categories – Suddh Swar and Vikrit swar. The Sangeet Shastra denotes seven Sudda Swar – Shadaj, Rishav, Gandhar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat and Nishad. Apart from these seven swar, there are semi micro tones in between these ascend and descend of Suddha swar are called Komal swar or Tivra swar according to the nature of notes. Rishav, Gandhar , Dhaivat and Nishad are always Komal which means flatter then the Suddha/ Natural Swar and Madhyam is always Sharper in nature so it is called Tivra Madhyam. In bettwen then Sudda- Komal- Tivra notes are also few more audible intervals which is called Shruti and they are used in particular frame as per the nature of Raga so Indian Classical Music usually called as a tradition of Shruti Gayan Parampara.

    The Swar in Indian Classical Music resonate and vibes with Major Fourth and Major Fifth Notes what we generally called as Shadaj Madhyam- Shadaj Pancham Bhav Samvad. That is why the existence of seven suddha swar, 12 semi tones and twenty-two micro tones are highly regarded as the musical frequencies in classical music. With reference to the origin of Swar, it is also supposed that these seven swar have certain association with animals and birds. Shadaj comes from the sound of peacock, Rishav comes from Skylark, Gandhar from the Goat, Madhyam from Heron, Pancham from Nightingale, Dhaivat from Horse and Nishad from the Elephant. Here, one thing should be noted that these swar are note of these animals but the pitch might represent the intonation of the sound what exactly they are so these birds and animals are only the symbolic form to represent the state of Swar.  


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